The mathematical operators are
The comparison operators are
IS NULL, and
IS NOT NULL.
See the section called “Equality and Comparison of Values” on how they behave.
LIKE can be used to compare a string using pattern matching.
There are two wildcards supported:
% will match zero or more characters and
_ will match exactly one character.
Wildcards are escaped using a single backslash (
The boolean operators are
Strings can be concatenated using the
For regular expression matching the
=~ operator is used.
Collections can be concatenated using the
To check if an element exists in a collection, you can use the
Since version 2.0, the previously existing property operators
Equality and Comparison of Values
Cypher supports comparing values (see Section 9.1, “Values”) by equality using the
Values of the same type are only equal if they are the same identical value (e.g.
3 = 3 and
"x" <> "xy").
Maps are only equal if they map exactly the same keys to equal values and collections are only equal if they contain the same sequence of equal values (e.g.
[3, 4] = [1+2, 8/2]).
Values of different types are considered as equal according to the following rules:
- Paths are treated as collections of alternating nodes and relationships and are equal to all collections that contain that very same sequence of nodes and relationships.
Testing any value against
NULLwith both the
<>operators always is
NULL. This includes
NULL = NULLand
NULL <> NULL. The only way to reliably test if a value
NULLis by using the special
v IS NULL, or
v IS NOT NULLequality operators.
All other combinations of types of values cannot be compared with each other. Especially, nodes, relationships, and literal maps are incomparable with each other.
It is an error to compare values that cannot be compared.
Ordering and Comparison of Values
The comparison operators
< (for ascending) and
> (for descending) are used to compare values for ordering.
The following points give some details on how the comparison is performed.
Numerical values are compared for ordering using numerical order (e.g.
3 < 4is true).
The special value
java.lang.Double.NaNis regarded as being larger than all other numbers.
String values are compared for ordering using lexicographic order (e.g.
"x" < "xy").
Boolean values are compared for ordering such that
false < true.
Comparing for ordering when one argument is
NULL < 3is
- It is an error to compare other types of values with each other for ordering.
Chaining Comparison Operations
Comparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g.,
x < y <= z is equivalent to
x < y AND y <= z.
a, b, c, ..., y, z are expressions and
op1, op2, ..., opN are comparison operators, then
a op1 b op2 c ... y opN z is equivalent to a
op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z.
a op1 b op2 c does not imply any kind of comparison between a and c, so that, e.g.,
x < y > z is perfectly legal (though perhaps not pretty).
MATCH (n) WHERE 21 < n.age <= 30 RETURN n
is equivalent to
MATCH (n) WHERE 21 < n.age AND n.age <= 30 RETURN n
Thus it will match all nodes where the age is between 21 and 30.
This syntax extends to all equality and inequality comparisons, as well as extending to chains longer than three.
a < b = c <= d <> e
Is equivalent to:
a < b AND b = c AND c <= d AND d <> e
For other comparison operators, see the section called “Comparison operators”.