3.2.5. Reserved keywords

We provide here a listing of reserved words, grouped by the categories from which they are drawn, all of which have a special meaning in Cypher. In addition to this, we list a number of words that are reserved for future use.

These reserved words are not permitted to be used as identifiers in the following contexts:

If any reserved keyword is escaped — i.e. is encapsulated by backticks `, such as `AND` — it would become a valid identifier in the above contexts.

3.2.5.1. Clauses

  • CALL
  • CREATE
  • DELETE
  • DETACH
  • EXISTS
  • FOREACH
  • LOAD
  • MATCH
  • MERGE
  • OPTIONAL
  • REMOVE
  • RETURN
  • SET
  • START
  • UNION
  • UNWIND
  • WITH

3.2.5.2. Subclauses

  • LIMIT
  • ORDER
  • SKIP
  • WHERE
  • YIELD

3.2.5.3. Modifiers

  • ASC
  • ASCENDING
  • ASSERT
  • BY
  • CSV
  • DESC
  • DESCENDING
  • ON

3.2.5.4. Expressions

  • ALL
  • CASE
  • ELSE
  • END
  • THEN
  • WHEN

3.2.5.5. Operators

  • AND
  • AS
  • CONTAINS
  • DISTINCT
  • ENDS
  • IN
  • IS
  • NOT
  • OR
  • STARTS
  • XOR

3.2.5.6. Schema

  • CONSTRAINT
  • CREATE
  • DROP
  • EXISTS
  • INDEX
  • NODE
  • KEY
  • UNIQUE

3.2.5.7. Hints

  • INDEX
  • JOIN
  • PERIODIC
  • COMMIT
  • SCAN
  • USING

3.2.5.8. Literals

  • false
  • null
  • true

3.2.5.9. Reserved for future use

  • ADD
  • DO
  • FOR
  • MANDATORY
  • OF
  • REQUIRE
  • SCALAR