``````[USE]
[MATCH [WHERE]]
[OPTIONAL MATCH [WHERE]]
[WITH [WHERE] [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]
RETURN [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]``````

Baseline for pattern search operations.

# MATCH

``````MATCH (n)
RETURN n AS node``````

Find all nodes and return all nodes.

``````MATCH (n:A&B)
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with an `AND` expression for the node label returns the nodes that contains both the specified labels.

``````MATCH (n:A|B)
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with an `OR` expression for the node label returns the nodes that contains either of the the specified labels.

``````MATCH (n:!A)
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with a `NOT` expression for the node label returns the nodes that does not contain the specified label.

``````MATCH (n:%)
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with a `WILDCARD` expression for the node label returns the nodes that contains any label.

``````MATCH (n:(!A&!B)|C)
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with a nesting of label expressions for the node label returns the nodes for which the full expression is true.

``````MATCH (n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person)
WHERE n.name = 'Alice'
RETURN m AS person``````

Node patterns can contain labels and properties.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-->(m:Label)
RETURN n, m``````

Any pattern can be used in `MATCH`.

``````MATCH (n:Person {name: 'Alice'})-->(m:Person)
RETURN m AS node``````

Patterns with node properties can be used in `MATCH` .

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r:R1|R2]->(m:Label)
RETURN r.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with an `OR` expression for the relationship type returns the relationships that contains either of the specified types.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r:!R1]->(m:Label)
RETURN r.name AS name
``````

A `MATCH` with a `NOT` expression for the relationship type returns the relationships that does not contain the specified type.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r:(!R1&!R2)|R3]->(m:Label)
RETURN r.name as name
``````

A `MATCH` with a nesting of relationship type expressions for the relationship type returns the nodes for which the full expression is true.

``````MATCH p = (n:Label)-->(m:Label)
RETURN p AS path``````

Assign a path to `p`.

# OPTIONAL MATCH

``````OPTIONAL MATCH (n:Person)-[r]->(m:Person {name: 'Alice'})
RETURN n, r, m``````

An `OPTIONAL MATCH` matches patterns against the graph database, just like a `MATCH` does. The difference is that if no matches are found, `OPTIONAL MATCH` will use a `null` for missing parts of the pattern.

``````MATCH (n:Person {name: 'Neo'})
OPTIONAL MATCH (n)-[r]->(m {name: 'Alice'})
RETURN n, r, m``````

`MATCH` should be used to find the the entities that must be present in the pattern. `OPTIONAL MATCH` should be used to find the entities that may not be present in the pattern.

# WHERE

``````MATCH (n:Label)-->(m:Label)
WHERE n.property <> \$value
RETURN n, m``````

`WHERE` can appear in a `MATCH` or `OPTIONAL MATCH` clause. It can also filter the results of a `WITH` clause.

``````MATCH (n)
WHERE n:A|B
RETURN n.name AS name
``````

A label expression can be used as a predicate in the `WHERE` clause.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
WHERE r:R1|R2
RETURN r.name AS name
``````

A relationship type expression can be used as a predicate in the `WHERE` clause.

``````WITH 30 AS minAge
MATCH (a:Person WHERE a.name = 'Andy')-[:KNOWS]->(b:Person WHERE b.age > minAge)
RETURN b.name
``````

`WHERE` can appear inside a `MATCH` clause.

``````MATCH (a:Person {name: 'Andy'})
RETURN [(a)-->(b WHERE b:Person) | b.name] AS friends
``````

`WHERE` can appear inside a pattern comprehension statement.

``````WITH 2000 AS minYear
MATCH (a:Person)-[r:KNOWS WHERE r.since < minYear]->(b:Person)
RETURN r.since``````

A relationship type expression can be used as a predicate in a `WHERE` clause.

``````WITH 2000 AS minYear
MATCH (a:Person {name: 'Andy'})
RETURN [(a)-[r:KNOWS WHERE r.since < minYear]->(b:Person) | r.since] AS years
``````

Relationship pattern predicates can be used inside pattern comprehension.

# RETURN

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN *``````

Return the value of all variables.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN n AS node, r AS rel``````

Use alias for result column name.

``````MATCH (n:Person)-[r:KNOWS]-(m:Person)
RETURN DISTINCT n AS node``````

Return unique rows.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN n AS node, r AS rel
ORDER BY n.name``````

Sort the result. The default order is `ASCENDING`.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN n AS node, r AS rel
ORDER BY n.name DESC``````

Sort the result in `DESCENDING` order.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN n AS node, r AS rel
SKIP 10``````

Skip the 10 first rows, for the result set.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN n AS node, r AS rel
LIMIT 10``````

Limit the number of rows to a maximum of 10, for the result set.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN count(*) AS nbr``````

The number of matching rows. See aggregating functions for more.

``````MATCH (n)
RETURN n:A&B
``````

A label expression can be used in the `WITH` or `RETURN` statement.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
RETURN r:R1|R2 AS result
``````

A relationship type expression can be used as a predicate in the `WITH` or `RETURN` statement.

# WITH

``````MATCH (user)-[:FRIEND]-(friend)
WHERE user.name = \$name
WITH user, count(friend) AS friends
WHERE friends > 10
RETURN user``````

The `WITH` syntax is similar to `RETURN`. It separates query parts explicitly, allowing users to declare which variables to carry over to the next part of the query.

``````MATCH (user)-[:FRIEND]-(friend)
WITH user, count(friend) AS friends
WHERE friends > 10
ORDER BY friends DESC
SKIP 1
LIMIT 3
RETURN user``````

The `WITH` clause can use:

• `WHERE`
• `ORDER BY`
• `SKIP`
• `LIMIT`

# UNION

``````MATCH (a:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(b:Person)
RETURN b.name AS name
UNION
MATCH (a:Person)-[:LOVES]->(b:Person)
RETURN b.name AS name``````

Return the distinct union of all query results. Result column types and names have to match.

``````MATCH (a:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(b:Person)
RETURN b.name AS name
UNION ALL
MATCH (a:Person)-[:LOVES]->(b:Person)
RETURN b.name AS name``````

Return the union of all query results, including duplicated rows.

# Write-Only Query Structure

``````[USE]
[CREATE]
[MERGE [ON CREATE ...] [ON MATCH ...]]
[WITH [WHERE] [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]
[SET]
[DELETE]
[REMOVE]
[RETURN [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]``````

Baseline for write operations.

``````[USE]
[MATCH [WHERE]]
[OPTIONAL MATCH [WHERE]]
[WITH [WHERE] [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]
[CREATE]
[MERGE [ON CREATE ...] [ON MATCH ...]]
[WITH [WHERE] [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]
[SET]
[DELETE]
[REMOVE]
[RETURN [ORDER BY] [SKIP] [LIMIT]]``````

Baseline for pattern search and write operations.

# CREATE

``CREATE (n:Label {name: \$value})``

Create a node with the given label and properties.

``CREATE (n:Label \$map)``

Create a node with the given label and properties.

``CREATE (n:Label)-[r:TYPE]->(m:Label)``

Create a relationship with the given relationship type and direction; bind a variable `r` to it.

``CREATE (n:Label)-[:TYPE {name: \$value}]->(m:Label)``

Create a relationship with the given type, direction, and properties.

# SET

``SET e.property1 = \$value1``

Update or create a property.

``````SET
e.property1 = \$value1,
e.property2 = \$value2``````

Update or create several properties.

``SET e = \$map``

Set all properties. This will remove any existing properties.

``SET e = {}``

Using the empty map (`{}`), removes any existing properties.

``SET e += \$map``

Add and update properties, while keeping existing ones.

``````MATCH (n:Label)
WHERE n.id = 123
SET n:Person``````

Add a label to a node. This example adds the label `Person` to a node.

# MERGE

``````MERGE (n:Label {name: \$value})
ON CREATE SET n.created = timestamp()
ON MATCH SET
n.counter = coalesce(n.counter, 0) + 1,
n.accessTime = timestamp()``````

Match a pattern or create it if it does not exist. Use `ON CREATE` and `ON MATCH` for conditional updates.

``````MATCH
(a:Person {name: \$value1}),
(b:Person {name: \$value2})
MERGE (a)-[r:LOVES]->(b)``````

`MERGE` finds or creates a relationship between the nodes.

``````MATCH (a:Person {name: \$value1})
MERGE (a)-[r:KNOWS]->(b:Person {name: \$value3})``````

`MERGE` finds or creates paths attached to the node.

# DELETE

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)
WHERE r.id = 123
DELETE r``````

Delete a relationship.

``````MATCH ()-[r]->()
DELETE r``````

Delete all relationships.

``````MATCH (n:Label)
WHERE n.id = 123
DETACH DELETE n``````

Delete a node and all relationships connected to it.

``````MATCH (n:Label)-[r]-()
WHERE r.id = 123 AND n.id = 'abc'
DELETE n, r``````

Delete a node and a relationship. An error will be thrown if the given node is attached to more than one relationship.

``````MATCH (n1:Label)-[r {id: 123}]->(n2:Label)
CALL {
WITH n1 MATCH (n1)-[r1]-()
RETURN count(r1) AS rels1
}
CALL {
WITH n2 MATCH (n2)-[r2]-()
RETURN count(r2) AS rels2
}
DELETE r
RETURN
n1.name AS node1, rels1 - 1 AS relationships1,
n2.name AS node2, rels2 - 1 AS relationships2``````

Delete a relationship and return the number of relationships for each node after the deletion.

``````MATCH (n)
DETACH DELETE n``````

Delete all nodes and relationships from the database.

# REMOVE

``````MATCH (n:Label)
WHERE n.id = 123
REMOVE n:Label``````

Remove a label from a node.

``````MATCH (n:Label)
WHERE n.id = 123
REMOVE n.alias``````

Remove a property from a node.

``````MATCH (n:Label)
WHERE n.id = 123
SET n = {} # REMOVE ALL properties``````

`REMOVE` cannot be used to remove all existing properties from a node or relationship. All existing properties can be removed from a node or relationship by using the `SET` clause with the property replacement operator (`=`) and an empty map (`{}`) as the right operand.

# CASE

``````CASE n.eyes
WHEN 'blue' THEN 1
WHEN 'brown' THEN 2
ELSE 3
END``````

The `CASE` clause can only be used as part of the `RETURN` clause or the `WITH` clause.

Return `THEN` value from the matching `WHEN` value. The `ELSE` value is optional, and substituted for null if missing.

``````CASE
WHEN n.eyes = 'blue' THEN 1
WHEN n.age < 40 THEN 2
ELSE 3
END``````

Return `THEN` value from the first `WHEN` predicate evaluating to `true`. Predicates are evaluated in order.

``````MATCH (n)-[r]->(m)
RETURN
CASE
WHEN n:A&B THEN 1
WHEN r:!R1&!R2 THEN 2
ELSE -1
END AS result``````

A relationship type expression and a label expression can be used in a `CASE` statement.

# CALL procedure

``CALL db.labels() YIELD label``

Standalone call to the procedure `db.labels` to list all labels used in the database. Note that required procedure arguments are given explicitly in brackets after the procedure name.

``CALL db.labels() YIELD *``

Standalone calls may use `YIELD *` to return all columns.

``CALL java.stored.procedureWithArgs``

Standalone calls may omit `YIELD` and also provide arguments implicitly via statement parameters, e.g. a standalone call requiring one argument input may be run by passing the parameter map `{input: 'foo'}`.

``````CALL db.labels() YIELD label
RETURN count(label) AS db_labels``````

Calls the built-in procedure `db.labels` inside a larger query to count all labels used in the database. Calls inside a larger query always requires passing arguments and naming results explicitly with `YIELD`.

# FOREACH

``````WITH ['Alice', 'Neo'] AS names
FOREACH ( value IN names | CREATE (:Person {name: value}) )``````

Run a mutating operation for each element in a list.

``FOREACH ( r IN relationships(path) | SET r.marked = true )``

Run a mutating operation for each relationship in a path.

``````LOAD CSV FROM
'https://neo4j.com/docs/cypher-cheat-sheet/5/csv/artists.csv'
AS line
CREATE (:Artist {name: line[1], year: toInteger(line[2])})``````

Load data from a CSV file and create nodes.

``````LOAD CSV WITH HEADERS FROM
AS line
CREATE (:Artist {name: line.Name, year: toInteger(line.Year)})``````

``````LOAD CSV WITH HEADERS FROM
AS line
CALL {
WITH line
CREATE (:Artist {name: line.Name, year: toInteger(line.Year)})
} IN TRANSACTIONS OF 500 ROWS``````

Subqueries can be made to execute in separate, inner transactions, producing intermediate commits.

To instruct Neo4j Browser to submit the query as an implicit (auto-commit) transaction, prepend the query with `:auto`.

``````LOAD CSV FROM
'https://neo4j.com/docs/cypher-cheat-sheet/5/csv/artists-fieldterminator.csv'
AS line FIELDTERMINATOR ';'
CREATE (:Artist {name: line[1], year: toInteger(line[2])})``````

Use a different field terminator, not the default which is a comma (with no whitespace around it).

``file()``

The `file()` function returns a string (the absolute path of the file that `LOAD CSV` is processing). Returns `null` if called outside of `LOAD CSV` context.

``linenumber()``

The `linenumber` function returns an integer (the line number that `LOAD CSV` is currently processing). Returns `null` if called outside of `LOAD CSV` context.

# SHOW FUNCTIONS

``SHOW FUNCTIONS``

List all available functions, returns only the default outputs (`name`, `category`, and `description`).

``SHOW BUILT IN FUNCTIONS YIELD *``

List built-in functions, can also be filtered on `ALL` or `USER-DEFINED` .

``SHOW FUNCTIONS EXECUTABLE BY CURRENT USER YIELD *``

Filter the available functions for the current user.

``SHOW FUNCTIONS EXECUTABLE BY user_name``

Filter the available functions for the specified user.

# SHOW PROCEDURES

``SHOW PROCEDURES``

List all available procedures, returns only the default outputs (`name`, `description`, `mode`, and `worksOnSystem`).

``SHOW PROCEDURES YIELD *``

List all available procedures.

``SHOW PROCEDURES EXECUTABLE YIELD name``

List all procedures that can be executed by the current user and return only the name of the procedures.

# SHOW TRANSACTIONS

``SHOW TRANSACTIONS``

List running transactions (within the instance), returns only the default outputs (`database`, `transactionId`, `currentQueryId`, `connectionId`, `clientAddress`, `username`, `currentQuery`, `startTime`, `status`, and `elapsedTime`).

``SHOW TRANSACTIONS YIELD *``

List running transactions (within the instance).

``SHOW TRANSACTIONS 'transaction_id' YIELD *``

List the running transaction (within the instance), with a specific `transaction_id`.

As long as the transaction IDs evaluate to a string or a list of strings at runtime, they can be any expression.

# TERMINATE TRANSACTIONS

``TERMINATE TRANSACTIONS 'transaction_id'``

Terminate a specific transaction, returns the outputs: `transactionId`, `username`, `message`.

``````TERMINATE TRANSACTIONS \$value
YIELD transactionId, message
RETURN transactionId, message  ``````

Terminal transactions allow for `YIELD` clauses. As long as the transaction IDs evaluate to a string or a list of strings at runtime, they can be any expression.

`````` SHOW TRANSACTIONS
TERMINATE TRANSACTIONS txId
YIELD message
WHERE NOT message = 'Transaction terminated.'
RETURN txId``````

List all transactions by the specified user and terminate them. Return the transaction IDs of the transactions that failed to terminate successfully.

# UNWIND

``````UNWIND [1, 2, 3] AS ix
RETURN ix + 1 AS item``````

The `UNWIND` clause expands a list into a sequence of rows.

Three rows are returned.

``````WITH [[1, 2], [3, 4], 5] AS nested
UNWIND nested AS ix
UNWIND ix AS iy
RETURN iy AS number``````

Multiple `UNWIND` clauses can be chained to unwind nested list elements.

Five rows are returned.

``````UNWIND \$list_of_maps AS properties
CREATE (n:Label)
SET n = properties``````

Create a node for each map in the list and set the given properties.

``````UNWIND \$names AS name
MATCH (n:Label {name: \$value})
RETURN avg(n.age) AS average``````

With `UNWIND`, any list can be transformed back into individual rows. The example matches all names from a list of names.

# USE

``USE myDatabase``

Select `myDatabase` to execute query, or query part, against.

``````USE neo4j
MATCH (n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person)
WHERE n.name = 'Alice'``````

`MATCH` query executed against neo4j database.

# Subqueries

``````CALL {
MATCH (p:Person)-[:FRIEND_OF]->(other:Person)
RETURN p, other
UNION
MATCH (p:Child)-[:CHILD_OF]->(other:Parent)
RETURN p, other
}``````

This calls a subquery with two union parts. The result of the subquery can afterwards be post-processed. More information about the `CALL` subquery can be found here .

``````MATCH (p:Person)
WHERE EXISTS {
MATCH (p)-[:HAS_DOG]->(dog:Dog)
WHERE p.name = dog.name
}
RETURN person.name AS name``````

An `EXISTS` subquery can be used to find out if a specified pattern exists at least once in the data. Unlike `CALL` subqueries, variables introduced by the outside scope can be used in the `EXISTS` subqueries without importing them.

``````MATCH (p:Person)
WHERE COUNT { (p)-[:HAS_DOG]->(d:Dog) } > 1
RETURN p.name AS name``````

A `COUNT` subquery can be used to to count the number of results of the subquery exists at least once in the data. Unlike `CALL` subqueries, variables introduced by the outside scope can be used in `COUNT` subqueries without importing them.

# Operators

``DISTINCT, ., []``

General

``+, -, *, /, %, ^``

Mathematical

``=, <>, <, >, <=, >=, IS NULL, IS NOT NULL``

Comparison

``AND, OR, XOR, NOT``

Boolean

``+``

String

``+, IN, [x], [x .. y]``

List

``=~``

Regular expression

``STARTS WITH, ENDS WITH, CONTAINS``

String matching

# null

`null` is used to represent missing/undefined values.

`null` is not equal to `null`. Not knowing two values does not imply that they are the same value. So the expression `null = null` yields `null` and not `true`. To check if an expression is `null`, use `IS NULL`.

Arithmetic expressions, comparisons and function calls (except `coalesce`) will return `null` if any argument is `null`.

An attempt to access a missing element in a list or a property that does not exist yields `null`.

In `OPTIONAL MATCH` clauses, nulls will be used for missing parts of the pattern.

# Patterns

``(n:Person)``

Node with `Person` label.

``(n:Person:Swedish)``

Node with both `Person` and `Swedish` labels.

``(n:Person {name: \$value})``

Node with the declared properties.

``(n:Label)-[r {name: \$value}]-(m:Label)``

Matches relationships with the declared properties.

``(n:Label)-->(m:Label)``

Relationship from `n` to `m`.

``(n:Label)--(m:Label)``

Relationship in any direction between `n` and `m`.

``(n:Person)-->(m)``

Node `n` labeled `Person` with relationship to `m`.

``(m:Person)<-[:KNOWS]-(n:Person)``

Relationship of type `KNOWS` from `n` to `m`.

``(n:Person)-[:KNOWS|:LOVES]->(m:Person)``

Relationship of type `KNOWS` or of type `LOVES` from `n` to `m`.

``(n:Label)-[r]->(m:Label)``

Bind the relationship to variable `r`.

``(n:Label)-[*1..5]->(m:Label)``

Variable length path of between 1 and 5 relationships from `n` to `m`.

``(n:Label)-[*]->(m:Label)``

Variable length path of any number of relationships from `n` to `m`. (See Performance section.)

``(n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person {property: \$value})``

A relationship of type `KNOWS` from a node `n` with label `Person` to a node `m` with label `Person` and the declared property.

``shortestPath((n1:Person)-[*..6]-(n2:Person))``

Find a single shortest path.

``allShortestPaths((n1:Person)-[*..6]->(n2:Person))``

Find a single shortest path.

``size((n:Label)-->()-->())``

Count the paths matching the pattern.

# Labels

``CREATE (n:Person {name: \$value})``

Create a node with label and property.

``MERGE (n:Person {name: \$value})``

Matches or creates unique node(s) with the label and property.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
RETURN n AS person``````

Matches nodes labeled `Person` .

``````MATCH (n)
WHERE (n:Person)``````

Checks the existence of the label `Person` on the node.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
WHERE n.name = \$value``````

Matches nodes labeled `Person` with the given property `name`.

``````MATCH (n:Person {id: 123})
SET n:Spouse:Parent:Employee``````

``````MATCH (n {id: 123})
RETURN labels(n) AS labels``````

The `labels` function returns the labels for the node.

``````MATCH (n {id: 123})
REMOVE n:Person``````

Remove the label `:Person` from the node.

# Properties

``````MATCH (n {name: 'Alice'})
SET n += {
a: 1,
b: 'example',
c: true,
d: date('2022-05-04'),
e: point({x: 2, y: 3}),
f: [1, 2, 3],
g: ['abc', 'example'],
h: [true, false, false],
i: [date('2022-05-04'), date()],
j: [point({x: 2, y: 3}), point({x: 5, y: 5})],
k: null
}``````

Neo4j only supports a subset of Cypher types for storage as singleton or array properties. Properties can be lists of numbers, strings, booleans, temporal, or spatial.

``{a: 123, b: 'example'}``

A map is not allowed as a property.

``[{a: 1, b: 2}, {c: 3, d: 4}]``

A list of maps are not allowed as a property.

``[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]]``

Collections containing collections cannot be stored in properties.

``[1, 2, null]``

Collections containing `null` values cannot be stored in properties.

# Lists

``RETURN ['a', 'b', 'c'] AS x``

Literal lists are declared in square brackets.

``````WITH ['Alice', 'Neo', 'Cypher'] AS names
RETURN names``````

Literal lists are declared in square brackets.

``RETURN size(\$my_list) AS len``

Lists can be passed in as parameters.

``RETURN \$my_list[0] AS value``

Lists can be passed in as parameters.

``RETURN range(\$firstNum, \$lastNum, \$step) AS list``

`range()` creates a list of numbers (step is optional), other functions returning lists are: `labels()`, `nodes()`, and `relationships()`.

``````MATCH p = (a)-[:KNOWS*]->()
RETURN relationships(p) AS r``````

The list of relationships comprising a variable length path can be returned using named paths and `relationships()`.

``RETURN list[\$idx] AS value``

List elements can be accessed with `idx` subscripts in square brackets. Invalid indexes return `null`.

``RETURN list[\$startIdx..\$endIdx] AS slice``

Slices can be retrieved with intervals from `start_idx` to `end_idx`, each of which can be omitted or negative. Out of range elements are ignored.

``````MATCH (a:Person)
RETURN [(a:Person)-->(b:Person) WHERE b.name = 'Alice' | b.age] AS list``````

Pattern comprehensions may be used to do a custom projection from a match directly into a list.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
RETURN n {.name, .age}``````

Map projections may be easily constructed from nodes, relationships and other map values.

# Maps

``RETURN {name: 'Alice', age: 20, address: {city: 'London', residential: true}} AS alice``

Literal maps are declared in curly braces much like property maps. Lists are supported.

``````WITH {name: 'Alice', age: 20, colors: ['blue', 'green']} AS map
RETURN map.name, map.age, map.colors[0]``````

Map entries can be accessed by their keys. Invalid keys result in an error.

``````WITH {person: {name: 'Anne', age: 25}} AS p
RETURN p.person.name AS name``````

Access the property of a nested map.

``````MERGE (p:Person {name: \$map.name})
ON CREATE SET p = \$map``````

Maps can be passed in as parameters and used either as a map or by accessing keys.

``````MATCH (matchedNode:Person)
RETURN matchedNode``````

Nodes and relationships are returned as maps of their data.

# Predicates

``n.property <> \$value``

Use comparison operators.

``toString(n.property) = \$value``

Use functions.

``n.number >= 1 AND n.number <= 10``

Use boolean operators to combine predicates.

``n:Person``

Check for node labels.

``variable IS NOT NULL``

Check if something is not `null`, e.g. that a property exists.

``n.property IS NULL OR n.property = \$value``

Either the property does not exist or the predicate is `true`.

``n.property = \$value``

Non-existing property returns `null`, which is not equal to anything.

``n['property'] = \$value``

Properties may also be accessed using a dynamically computed property name.

``n.property STARTS WITH 'Neo'``

String matching that starts with the specified string.

``n.property ENDS WITH '4j'``

String matching that ends with the specified string.

``n.property CONTAINS 'cypher'``

String matching that contains the specified string.

``n.property =~ '(?i)neo.*'``

String matching that matches the specified regular expression. By prepending a regular expression with `(?i)`, the whole expression becomes case-insensitive.

``(n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person)``

Ensure the pattern has at least one match.

``NOT (n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person)``

Exclude matches to `(n:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(m:Person)` from the result.

``n.property IN [\$value1, \$value2]``

Check if an element exists in a list.

# List Predicates

``all(x IN coll WHERE x.property IS NOT NULL)``

Returns `true` if the predicate is `true` for all elements in the list.

``any(x IN coll WHERE x.property IS NOT NULL)``

Returns `true` if the predicate is `true` for at least one element in the list.

``none(x IN coll WHERE x.property IS NOT NULL)``

Returns `true` if the predicate is `false` for all elements in the list.

``single(x IN coll WHERE x.property IS NOT NULL)``

Returns `true` if the predicate is `true` for exactly one element in the list.

# List Expressions

``size(\$list)``

Return the number of elements in the list.

``head(\$list)``

Return the first element of the list. Returns `null` for an empty list. Equivalent to the list indexing `\$list[0]`.

``last(\$list)``

Return the last element of the list. Returns `null` for an empty list. Equivalent to the list indexing `\$list[-1]`.

``tail(\$list)``

Return a list containing all elements except for the first element. Equivalent to the list slice `\$list[1..]`. In this case out-of-bound slices are truncated to an empty list `[]`.

``reverse(\$list)``

Return a list containing all elements in reversed order.

``[x IN list | x.prop]``

A list of the value of the expression for each element in the original list.

``[x IN list WHERE x.prop <> \$value]``

A filtered list of the elements where the predicate is `true`.

``[x IN list WHERE x.prop <> \$value | x.prop]``

A list comprehension that filters a list and extracts the value of the expression for each element in that list.

``reduce(s = '', x IN list | s + x.prop)``

Evaluate expression for each element in the list, accumulate the results.

# Functions

``id(nodeOrRelationship)``

The `id` function returns an integer (the internal ID of a node or relationship). Do not rely on the internal ID for your business domain; the internal ID can change between transactions. The `id` function will be removed in the next major release. It is recommended to use `elementId` instead.

``elementId(nodeOrRelationship)``

The `elementId` function returns a node or relationship identifier, unique with a specific transaction and DBMS.

``properties(nodeOrRelationship)``

The `properties` function returns a map containing all the properties of a node or relationship.

``keys(nodeOrRelationship)``

The `keys` function returns a list of string representations for the property names of a node or relationship.

``keys(\$map)``

The `keys` function returns a list of string representations for the keys of a map.

``coalesce(expr1, expr2, expr3, defaultValue)``

The `coalesce` function returns the first non-`null` expression.

``timestamp()``

The `timestamp` function returns an integer; the time in milliseconds since `midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC.` and the current time.

``randomUUID()``

The `randomUUID` function returns a string; a randomly-generated universally unique identifier (UUID).

``toInteger(expr)``

The `toInteger` function returns an integer number if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`. The function returns an error if provided with an expression that is not a string, integer, floating point, boolean, or null.

``toIntegerOrNull(expr)``

The `toIntegerOrNull` function returns an integer number if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`.

``toFloat(expr)``

The `toFloat` returns a floating point number if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`. The function returns an error if provided with an expression that is not a string, integer, floating point, or null.

``toFloatOrNull(expr)``

The `toFloatOrNull` returns a floating point number if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`.

``toBoolean(expr)``

The `toBoolean` returns a boolean if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`. The function returns an error if provided with an expression that is not a string, integer, boolean, or null.

``toBooleanOrNull(expr)``

The `toBooleanOrNull` returns a boolean if possible, for the given expression; otherwise it returns `null`.

``isEmpty(string)``

The `isEmpty` returns a boolean; Check if a string has zero characters. Returns `null` for `null`.

``isEmpty(list)``

The `isEmpty` returns a boolean; Check if a list has zero items. Returns `null` for `null`.

``isEmpty(map)``

The `isEmpty` returns a boolean; Check if a map has zero keys. Returns `null` for `null`.

# Path Functions

``length(path)``

Return the number of relationships in the path.

``nodes(path)``

Return the nodes in the path as a list.

``relationships(path)``

Return the relationships in the path as a list.

``[x IN nodes(path) | x.prop]``

Extract properties from the nodes in a path.

# Spatial Functions

``point({x: \$x, y: \$y})``

Return a point in a 2D cartesian coordinate system.

``point({latitude: \$y, longitude: \$x})``

Returns a point in a 2D geographic coordinate system, with coordinates specified in decimal degrees.

``point({x: \$x, y: \$y, z: \$z})``

Returns a point in a 3D cartesian coordinate system.

``point({latitude: \$y, longitude: \$x, height: \$z})``

Returns a point in a 3D geographic coordinate system, with latitude and longitude in decimal degrees, and height in meters.

``````point.distance(
point({x: \$x1, y: \$y1}),
point({x: \$x2, y: \$y2})
)``````

Returns a floating point number representing the linear distance between two points. The returned units will be the same as those of the point coordinates, and it will work for both 2D and 3D cartesian points.

``````point.distance(
point({latitude: \$y1, longitude: \$x1}),
point({latitude: \$y2, longitude: \$x2})
)``````

Returns the geodesic distance between two points in meters. It can be used for 3D geographic points as well.

``````point.withinBBox(
point({x: 1, y: 1}),
point({x: 0, y: 0}),
point({x: 2, y: 2})
)
``````

The `point.withinBBox` function returns a boolean; `true` if the provided point is contained in the bounding box (boundary included), otherwise the return value will be `false`.

Syntax: `point.withinBBox(point, lowerLeft, upperRight)`

• `point` - the point (geographic or cartesian CRS) to check.
• `lowerLeft` - the lower-left (south-west) point of a bounding box.
• `upperRight` - the upper-right (north-east) point of a bounding box.
• All inputs need to be in the same Coordinate Reference System (CRS).

# Temporal Functions

``date('2018-04-05')``

Returns a date parsed from a string.

``localtime('12:45:30.25')``

Returns a time with no time zone.

``time('12:45:30.25+01:00')``

Returns a time in a specified time zone.

``localdatetime('2018-04-05T12:34:00')``

Returns a datetime with no time zone.

``datetime('2018-04-05T12:34:00[Europe/Berlin]')``

Returns a datetime in the specified time zone.

``datetime({epochMillis: 3360000})``

Transforms 3360000 as a UNIX Epoch time into a normal datetime.

``date({year: \$year, month: \$month, day: \$day})``

All of the temporal functions can also be called with a map of named components. This example returns a date from year, month and day components. Each function supports a different set of possible components.

``datetime({date: \$date, time: \$time})``

Temporal types can be created by combining other types. This example creates a datetime from a date and a time.

``date({date: \$datetime, day: 5})``

Temporal types can be created by selecting from more complex types, as well as overriding individual components. This example creates a date by selecting from a datetime, as well as overriding the day component.

``````WITH date('2018-04-05') AS d
RETURN d.year, d.month, d.day, d.week, d.dayOfWeek``````

Accessors allow extracting components of temporal types.

# Duration Functions

``RETURN duration('P1Y2M10DT12H45M30.25S') AS duration``

Returns a duration of 1 year, 2 months, 10 days, 12 hours, 45 minutes and 30.25 seconds.

``RETURN duration.between(\$date1, \$date2) AS duration``

Returns a duration between two temporal instances.

``````WITH duration('P1Y2M10DT12H45M') AS d
RETURN d.years, d.months, d.days, d.hours, d.minutes``````

Returns 1 year, 14 months, 10 days, 12 hours and 765 minutes.

``````WITH duration('P1Y2M10DT12H45M') AS d
RETURN d.years, d.monthsOfYear, d.days, d.hours, d.minutesOfHour``````

Returns 1 year, 2 months, 10 days, 12 hours and 45 minutes.

``RETURN date('2015-01-01') + duration('P1Y1M1D') AS date``

Returns a date of 2016-02-02. It is also possible to subtract durations from temporal instances.

``RETURN duration('PT30S') * 10 AS duration``

Returns a duration of 5 minutes. It is also possible to divide a duration by a number.

# Mathematical Functions

``RETURN abs(\$expr) AS abs``

The absolute value.

``RETURN isNan(\$expr) AS nan``

Returns whether a number is `NaN`,a special floating point number defined in the Floating-Point Standard IEEE 754.

``RETURN rand() AS random``

Returns a random number in the range from `0` (inclusive) to `1` (exclusive), `[0,1)`. Returns a new value for each call. Also useful for selecting a subset or random ordering.

``RETURN (toInteger(rand() * 10)) + 1 AS random``

Return a random number in the range from `1` to `10`.

``RETURN round(\$number) AS nbr``

Round to the nearest integer.

``RETURN ceil(\$number) AS nbr``

Round up to the nearest integer.

``RETURN floor(\$number) AS nbr``

Round down to the nearest integer.

``RETURN sqrt(\$number) AS square``

The square root.

``RETURN sign(\$number) AS sign``

`0` if zero, `-1` if negative, `1` if positive.

``RETURN sin(\$radians) AS sine``

Trigonometric functions also include `cos()`, `tan()`, `cot()`, `asin()`, `acos()`, `atan()`, `atan2()`, and `haversin()`. All arguments for the trigonometric functions should be in radians, if not otherwise specified.

``degrees(\$expr), radians(\$expr), pi()``

Converts radians into degrees; use `radians()` for the reverse, and `pi()` for π.

``log10(\$expr), log(\$expr), exp(\$expr), e()``

Logarithm base 10, natural logarithm, e to the power of the parameter, and the value of e.

# String Functions

``toString(\$expression)``

String representation of the expression.

``replace(\$original, \$search, \$replacement)``

Replace all occurrences of search with replacement. All arguments must be expressions.

``substring(\$original, \$begin, \$subLength)``

Get part of a string. The subLength argument is optional.

``left(\$original, \$subLength)``

The first part of a string.

``right(\$original, \$subLength)``

The last part of the string.

``trim(\$original), lTrim(\$original), rTrim(\$original)``

Trim all whitespace, or on the left side, or on the right side.

``toUpper(\$original), toLower(\$original)``

UPPERCASE and lowercase.

``split(\$original, \$delimiter)``

Split a string into a list of strings.

``reverse(\$original)``

Reverse a string.

``size(\$string)``

Calculate the number of characters in the string.

# Relationship Functions

``type(\$relationship)``

String representation of the relationship type.

``startNode(\$relationship)``

Start node of the relationship.

``endNode(\$relationship)``

End node of the relationship.

``id(\$relationship)``

The internal ID of the relationship. Do not rely on the internal ID for your business domain; the internal ID can change between transactions.

# Aggregating Functions

``````MATCH (:Person)-[:KNOWS]->(:Person {name: 'Alice'})
RETURN count(*) AS rows``````

The number of matching rows.

``count(variable)``

The number of non-`null` values.

``count(DISTINCT variable)``

All aggregating functions also take the `DISTINCT` operator, which removes duplicates from the values.

``collect(n.property)``

List from the values, ignores `null`.

``sum(n.property)``

Sum numerical values. Similar functions are `avg()`, `min()`, `max()`.

``percentileDisc(n.property, \$percentile)``

Discrete percentile. Continuous percentile is `percentileCont()`. The percentile argument is from `0.0` to `1.0`.

``stDev(n.property)``

Standard deviation for a sample of a population. For an entire population use `stDevP()`.

# INDEX

``SHOW INDEXES``

List all indexes, returns only the default outputs (`id`, `name`, `state`, `populationPercent`, `type`, `entityType`, `labelsOrTypes`, `properties`, `indexProvider`, and `owningConstraint`).

``SHOW INDEXES YIELD *``

List all indexes. .

``SHOW RANGE INDEXES``

List range indexes, can also be filtered on `ALL`, `FULLTEXT`, `LOOKUP`, `POINT`, and `TEXT`.

``DROP INDEX index_name``

Drop the index named `index_name`, throws an error if the index does not exist.

``DROP INDEX index_name IF EXISTS``

Drop the index named `index_name` if it exists, does nothing if it does not exist.

``````CREATE INDEX index_name
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.name)``````

Create a range index with the name `index_name` on nodes with label `Person` and property `name`.

It is possible to omit the `index_name`, if not specified the index name will be decided by the DBMS. Best practice is to always specify a sensible name when creating an index.

The create syntax is `CREATE [RANGE|FULLTEXT|LOOKUP|POINT|TEXT] INDEX ...`. Defaults to range if not explicitly stated.

``````CREATE RANGE INDEX index_name
FOR ()-[k:KNOWS]-() ON (k.since)``````

Create a range index on relationships with type `KNOWS` and property `since` with the name `index_name`.

``````CREATE RANGE INDEX index_name
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.surname)
OPTIONS {
indexProvider: 'range-1.0'
}
``````

Create a range index on nodes with label `Person` and property `surname` with name `index_name` and the index provider `range-1.0`.

``````CREATE INDEX index_name
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.name, p.age)``````

Create a composite range index with the name `index_name` on nodes with label `Person` and the properties `name` and `age`, throws an error if the index already exist.

``````CREATE INDEX index_name IF NOT EXISTS
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.name, p.age)``````

Create a composite range index with the name `index_name` on nodes with label `Person` and the properties `name` and `age` if it does not already exist, does nothing if it did exist.

``````CREATE LOOKUP INDEX index_name
FOR (n) ON EACH labels(n)``````

Create a token lookup index on nodes with any label.

``````CREATE LOOKUP INDEX index_name
FOR ()-[r]-() ON EACH type(r)``````

Create a token lookup index on relationships with any relationship type.

``````CREATE POINT INDEX index_name
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.location)
OPTIONS {
indexConfig: {
spatial.cartesian.min: [-100.0, -100.0],
spatial.cartesian.max: [100.0, 100.0]
}
}``````

Create a point index on nodes with label `Person` and property `location` with the name `index_name` and the given `spatial.cartesian` settings. The other index settings will have their default values.

``````CREATE POINT INDEX index_name
FOR ()-[h:STREET]-() ON (h.intersection)
``````

Create a point index with the name `index_name` on relationships with the type `STREET` and property `intersection`.

``````CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX index_name
FOR (n:Friend) ON EACH [n.name]
OPTIONS {
indexConfig: {
`fulltext.analyzer`: 'swedish'
}
}``````

Create a fulltext index on nodes with the name `index_name` and analyzer `swedish`. Fulltext indexes on nodes can only be used by from the procedure `db.index.fulltext.queryNodes`. The other index settings will have their default values.

``````CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX index_name
FOR ()-[r:KNOWS]-() ON EACH [r.info, r.note]
OPTIONS {
indexConfig: {
`fulltext.analyzer`: 'english'
}
}``````

Create a fulltext index on relationships with the name `index_name` and analyzer `english`. Fulltext indexes on relationships can only be used by from the procedure `db.index.fulltext.queryRelationships`. The other index settings will have their default values.

``````CREATE TEXT INDEX index_name
FOR (p:Person) ON (p.name)``````

Create a text index on nodes with label `Person` and property `name`. The property value type should be a string for the text index. Other value types are ignored by the text index.

A text index is utilized if the predicate compares the property with a string. Note that for example `toLower(n.name) = 'Example String'` does not use an index. A text index is utilized to check the `IN` list checks, when all elements in the list are strings.

``````CREATE TEXT INDEX index_name
FOR ()-[r:KNOWS]-() ON (r.city)``````

Create a text index on relationships with type `KNOWS` and property `city`. The property value type should be a string for the text index. Other value types are ignored by the text index.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
WHERE n.name = \$value``````

An index can be automatically used for the equality comparison. Note that for example `toLower(n.name) = \$value` will not use an index.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
WHERE n.name IN [\$value]``````

An index can automatically be used for the `IN` list checks.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
WHERE n.name = \$value1 AND n.age = \$value2``````

A composite index can be automatically used for equality comparison of both properties. Note that there needs to be predicates on all properties of the composite index for it to be used.

``````MATCH (n:Person)
USING INDEX n:Person(name)
WHERE n.name = \$value``````

Index usage can be enforced when Cypher uses a suboptimal index, or when more than one index should be used.

# CONSTRAINT

``SHOW ALL CONSTRAINTS``

List all constraints, returns only the default outputs (`id`, `name`, `type`, `entityType`, `labelsOrTypes`, `properties`, and `ownedIndex`). Can also be filtered on on `UNIQUE`, `NODE EXISTENCE`, `RELATIONSHIP EXISTENCE`, `EXISTENCE`, and `NODE KEY`.

``SHOW CONSTRAINTS YIELD *``

List all constraints. .

``DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name``

Drop the constraint with the name `constraint_name`, throws an error if the constraint does not exist.

``DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name IF EXISTS``

Drop the constraint with the name `constraint_name` if it exists, does nothing if it does not exist.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name IF NOT EXISTS
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE p.name IS UNIQUE``````

Create a unique property constraint on the label `Person` and property `name`. Using the keyword `IF NOT EXISTS` makes the command idempotent, and no error will be thrown if an attempt is made to create the same constraint twice. If any other node with that label is updated or created with a name that already exists, the write operation will fail.

Best practice is to always specify a sensible name when creating a constraint.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE (p.name, p.age) IS UNIQUE``````

Create a unique property constraint on the label `Person` and properties `name` and `age`. An error will be thrown if an attempt is made to create the same constraint twice. If any node with that label is updated or created with a name and age combination that already exists, the write operation will fail.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE p.surname IS UNIQUE
OPTIONS {
indexProvider: 'range-1.0'
}``````

Create a unique property constraint on the label `Person` and property `surname` with the index provider `range-1.0` for the accompanying index.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR ()-[r:LIKED]-()
REQUIRE r.when IS NOT NULL``````

Create a relationship property existence constraint on the type `LIKED` and property `when`. If a relationship with that type is created without a `when` property, or if the property `when` is removed from an existing relationship with the type `LIKED`, the write operation will fail.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE p.name IS NOT NULL``````

Create a node property existence constraint on the label `Person` and property `name`. If a node with that label is created without a `name` property, or if the `name` property on the existing node with the label `Person` is removed, the write operation will fail.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE (p.name, p.surname) IS NODE KEY``````

Create a node key constraint on the label `Person` and properties `name` and `surname` with the name `constraint_name`. If a node with that label is created without both the `name` and `surname` properties, or if the combination of the two is not unique, or if the `name` and/or surname properties on an existing node with the label `Person` is modified to violate these constraints, the write operation will fail.

``````CREATE CONSTRAINT constraint_name
FOR (p:Person)
REQUIRE (p.name, p.age) IS NODE KEY
OPTIONS {
indexProvider: 'range-1.0'
}
``````

Create a node key constraint on the label `Person` and properties `name` and `age` with the name `constraint_name` and given index provider for the accompanying range index.

# Performance

Use parameters instead of literals when possible. This allows Neo4j DBMS to cache your queries instead of having to parse and build new execution plans.

Always set an upper limit for your variable length patterns. It is possible to have a query go wild and touch all nodes in a graph by mistake.

Return only the data you need. Avoid returning whole nodes and relationships; instead, pick the data you need and return only that.

Use `PROFILE` / `EXPLAIN` to analyze the performance of your queries. See Query Tuning for more information on these and other topics, such as planner hints.

# DATABASE Management

```dba
`db1`
`database-name`
`database-name-123`
`database.name`
`database.name.123````

The naming rules for a database:

• The character length of a database name must be at least `3` characters; and not more than `63` characters.
• The first character of a database name must be an ASCII alphabetic character.
• Subsequent characters must be ASCII alphabetic or numeric characters, dots or dashes; `[a..z][0..9].-`.
• Database names are case-insensitive and normalized to lowercase.
• Database names that begin with an underscore (`_`) or with the prefix `system` are reserved for internal use.

The non-alphabetic characters dot (`.`) and dash (`-`), including numbers, can be used in database names, but must be escaped using backticks (```). Best practice is to always escape when using dots. Deprecated behavior: database names are the only identifier for which dots (`.`) do not need to be escaped.

``SHOW DATABASES``

List all databases in Neo4j DBMS and information about them, returns only the default outputs (`name`, `type`, `aliases`, `access`, `address`, `role`, `writer`, `requestedStatus`, `currentStatus`, `statusMessage`, `default`, `home`, and `constituents`).

``SHOW DATABASES YIELD *``

List all databases in Neo4j DBMS and information about them.

``````SHOW DATABASES
YIELD name, currentStatus
WHERE name CONTAINS 'my'
AND currentStatus = 'online'``````

List information about databases, filtered by `name` and `currentStatus` and further refined by conditions on these.

``SHOW DATABASE `database-name` YIELD *``

List information about the database `database-name`.

``SHOW DEFAULT DATABASE``

List information about the default database, for the Neo4j DBMS.

``SHOW HOME DATABASE``

List information about the current users home database.

``DROP DATABASE `database-name` IF EXISTS``
Delete the database `database-name`, if it exists. This command can delete both standard and composite databases.
``DROP COMPOSITE DATABASE `composite-database-name```

Delete the database named `composite-database-name`. In case the given database name does not exist or is not composite, and error will be thrown.

``CREATE DATABASE `database-name` IF NOT EXISTS``

Create a standard database named `database-name` if it does not already exist.

``CREATE OR REPLACE DATABASE `database-name```

Create a standard database named `database-name`. If a database with that name exists, then the existing database is deleted and a new one created.

``````CREATE DATABASE `topology-example` IF NOT EXISTS
TOPOLOGY 1 PRIMARY 0 SECONDARIES``````

Create a standard database named `topology-example` in a cluster environment, to use 1 primary server and 0 secondary servers.

``CREATE COMPOSITE DATABASE `composite-database-name```

Create a composite database named `composite-database-name`.

``STOP DATABASE `database-name```

Stop a database named `database-name`.

``START DATABASE `database-name```

Start a database named `database-name`.

``````ALTER DATABASE `database-name` IF EXISTS

Modify a standard database named `database-name` to accept only read queries.

``````ALTER DATABASE `database-name` IF EXISTS

Modify a standard database named `database-name` to accept write and read queries.

``````ALTER DATABASE `topology-example`
SET TOPOLOGY 1 PRIMARY 0 SECONDARIES``````

Modify a standard database named `topology-example` in a cluster environment to use 1 primary server and 0 secondary servers.

``````ALTER DATABASE `topology-example`
SET TOPOLOGY 1 PRIMARY

Modify a standard database named `topology-example` in a cluster environment to use 1 primary servers and 0 secondary servers, and to only accept read queries.

# ALIAS Management

``SHOW ALIASES FOR DATABASE``

List all database aliases in Neo4j DBMS and information about them, returns only the default outputs (`name`, `database`, `location`, `url`, and `user`).

``SHOW ALIASES `database-alias` FOR DATABASE``

List the database alias named `database-alias` and the information about it. Returns only the default outputs (`name`, `database`, `location`, `url`, and `user`).

``SHOW ALIASES FOR DATABASE YIELD *``

List all database aliases in Neo4j DBMS and information about them.

``````CREATE ALIAS `database-alias` IF NOT EXISTS
FOR DATABASE `database-name```````

Create a local alias named `database-alias` for the database named `database-name`.

``````CREATE OR REPLACE ALIAS `database-alias`
FOR DATABASE `database-name```````

Create or replace a local alias named `database-alias` for the database named `database-name`.

``````CREATE ALIAS `database-alias`
FOR DATABASE `database-name`
PROPERTIES { property = \$value }``````

Database aliases can be given properties.

``````CREATE ALIAS `database-alias`
FOR DATABASE `database-name`
AT \$url
USER user_name
``````

Create a remote alias named `database-alias` for the database named `database-name`.

``````CREATE ALIAS `composite-database-name`.`alias-in-composite-name`
FOR DATABASE `database-name`
AT \$url
USER user_name
``````

Create a remote alias named `alias-in-composite-name` as a constituent alias in the composite database named `composite-database-name` for the database with name `database-name`.

``````ALTER ALIAS `database-alias` IF EXISTS
SET DATABASE TARGET `database-name```````

Alter the alias named `database-alias` to target the database named `database-name`.

``````ALTER ALIAS `remote-database-alias` IF EXISTS
SET DATABASE
USER user_name

Alter the remote alias named `remote-database-alias`, set the user name (`user_name`) and the password.

``````ALTER ALIAS `database-alias`
SET DATABASE PROPERTIES { key: value }
``````

Update the properties for the database alias named `database-alias`.

``DROP ALIAS `database-alias` IF EXISTS FOR DATABASE``

Delete the alias named `database-alias`.

# SERVER Management

``SHOW SERVERS``

Display all servers running in the cluster, including servers that have yet to be enabled as well as dropped servers. Default outputs are: `name`, `address`, `state`, `health`, and `hosting`.

``ENABLE SERVER 'serverId'``

Make the server with the ID `serverId` an active member of the cluster.

``RENAME SERVER 'oldName' TO 'newName'``

Change the name of a server.

``ALTER SERVER 'name' SET OPTIONS {modeConstraint: 'PRIMARY'}``

Only allow the specified server to host databases in primary mode.

``REALLOCATE DATABASES``

Re-balance databases among the servers in the cluster.

``DEALLOCATE DATABASES FROM SERVER 'name'``

Remove all databases from the specified server, adding them to other servers as needed. The specified server is not allowed to host any new databases.

``DROP SERVER 'name'``

Remove the specified server from the cluster.

# USER Management

``SHOW USERS``

List all users in Neo4j DBMS, returns only the default outputs (`user`, `roles`, `passwordChangeRequired`, `suspended`, and `home`).

``SHOW CURRENT USER``

List the currently logged-in user, returns only the default outputs (`user`, `roles`, `passwordChangeRequired`, `suspended`, and `home`).

``````SHOW USERS
WHERE suspended = true``````

List users that are suspended.

``````SHOW USERS

``DROP USER user_name``

Delete the specified user.

``````CREATE USER user_name

Create a new user and set the password. This password must be changed on the first login.

``RENAME USER user_name TO other_user_name``

Rename the specified user.

``````ALTER CURRENT USER

Change the password of the logged-in user. The user will not be required to change this password on the next login.

``````ALTER USER user_name
CHANGE NOT REQUIRED``````

Set a new password (a String) for a user. This user will not be required to change this password on the next login.

``````ALTER USER user_name IF EXISTS

If the specified user exists, force this user to change the password on the next login.

``````ALTER USER user_name
SET STATUS SUSPENDED``````

Change the status to `SUSPENDED`, for the specified user.

``````ALTER USER user_name
SET STATUS ACTIVE``````

Change the status to `ACTIVE`, for the specified user.

``````ALTER USER user_name
SET HOME DATABASE `database-name```````

Set the home database for the specified user. The home database can either be a database or an alias.

``````ALTER USER user_name
REMOVE HOME DATABASE``````

Unset the home database for the specified user and fallback to the default database.

# ROLE Management

``SHOW ROLES``

List all roles in the system, returns the output `role`.

``````SHOW ROLES
WHERE role CONTAINS \$subString``````

List roles that contains a given string.

``SHOW POPULATED ROLES``

List all roles that are assigned to at least one user in the system.

``SHOW POPULATED ROLES WITH USERS``

List all roles that are assigned to at least one user in the system, and the users assigned to those roles. The returned outputs are `role` and `member`.

``````SHOW POPULATED ROLES WITH USERS
YIELD member, role
WHERE member = \$user
RETURN role``````

List all roles that are assigned to a `\$user`.

``DROP ROLE role_name``

Delete a role.

``CREATE ROLE role_name IF NOT EXISTS``

Create a role, unless it already exists.

``CREATE ROLE role_name AS COPY OF other_role_name``

Create a role, as a copy of the existing `other_role_name`.

``RENAME ROLE role_name TO other_role_name``

Rename a role.

``GRANT ROLE role_name1, role_name2 TO user_name``

Assign roles to a user.

``REVOKE ROLE role_name FROM user_name``

Remove the specified role from a user.

# SHOW Privileges

``SHOW PRIVILEGES``

List all privileges in the system, and the roles that they are assigned to. Outputs returned are: `access`, `action`, `resource`, `graph`, `segment`, `role`, and `immutable`.

``SHOW PRIVILEGES AS COMMANDS``

List all privileges in the system as Cypher commands, for example `GRANT ACCESS ON DATABASE * TO `admin``. Returns only the default output (`command`).

``SHOW USER PRIVILEGES``

List all privileges of the currently logged-in user, and the roles that they are assigned to. Outputs returned are: `access`, `action`, `resource`, `graph`, `segment`, `role`, `immutable`, and `user`.

``SHOW USER PRIVILEGES AS COMMANDS``

List all privileges of the currently logged-in user, and the roles that they are assigned to as Cypher commands, for example `GRANT ACCESS ON DATABASE * TO \$role`. Returns only the default output (`command`).

``SHOW USER user_name PRIVILEGES``

List all privileges assigned to each of the specified users (multiple users can be specified separated by commas `n1, n2, n3`), and the roles that they are assigned to. Outputs returned are: `access`, `action`, `resource`, `graph`, `segment`, `role`, `immutable`, and `user`.

``SHOW USER user_name PRIVILEGES AS COMMANDS YIELD *``

List all privileges assigned to each of the specified users (multiple users can be specified separated by commas `n1, n2, n3`), as generic Cypher commands, for example `GRANT ACCESS ON DATABASE * TO \$role`. Outputs returned are: `command` and `immutable`.

``SHOW ROLE role_name PRIVILEGES``

List all privileges assigned to each of the specified roles (multiple roles can be specified separated by commas `r1, r2, r3`). Outputs returned are: `access`, `action`, `resource`, `graph`, `segment`, `role`, and `immutable`.

``SHOW ROLE role_name PRIVILEGES AS COMMANDS``

List all privileges assigned to each of the specified roles (multiple roles can be specified separated by commas `r1, r2, r3`) as Cypher commands, for example `GRANT ACCESS ON DATABASE * TO `admin``. Returns only the default output (`command`).

``````GRANT TRAVERSE
ON GRAPH * NODE * TO role_name``````

Grant `TRAVERSE` privilege on all graphs and all nodes to the specified role.

• `GRANT` – gives privileges to roles.
• `DENY` – denies privileges to roles.

``````REVOKE GRANT TRAVERSE
ON GRAPH * NODE * FROM role_name``````

To remove a granted or denied privilege, prepend the privilege query with `REVOKE` and replace the `TO` with `FROM`.

``````GRANT TRAVERSE
ON GRAPH * RELATIONSHIP * TO role_name``````

Grant `TRAVERSE` privilege on all graphs and all relationships to the specified role.

``````DENY READ {prop}
ON GRAPH `database-name` RELATIONSHIP rel_type TO role_name``````

Deny `READ` privilege on a specified property, on all relationships with a specified type in a specified graph, to the specified role.

``````REVOKE READ {prop}
ON GRAPH `database-name` FROM role_name``````

Revoke `READ` privilege on a specified property in a specified graph from the specified role.

``````GRANT MATCH {*}
ON HOME GRAPH ELEMENTS label_or_type TO role_name``````

Grant `MATCH` privilege on all nodes and relationships with the specified label/type, on the home graph, to the specified role. This is semantically the same as having both `TRAVERSE` privilege and `READ {*}` privilege.

# ON GRAPH Write Privileges

``````GRANT ALL GRAPH PRIVILEGES
ON GRAPH `database-name` TO role_name``````

Grant `ALL GRAPH PRIVILEGES` privilege on a specified graph to the specified role.

``GRANT ALL ON GRAPH `database-name` TO role_name``

Short form for grant `ALL GRAPH PRIVILEGES` privilege.

• `GRANT` – gives privileges to roles.
• `DENY` – denies privileges to roles.
To remove a granted or denied privilege, prepend the privilege query with `REVOKE` and replace the `TO` with `FROM`; (`REVOKE GRANT ALL ON GRAPH `database-name` FROM role_name`).

``````DENY CREATE
ON GRAPH * NODES node_label TO role_name``````

Deny `CREATE` privilege on all nodes with a specified label in all graphs to the specified role.

``````REVOKE DELETE
ON GRAPH `database-name` TO role_name``````

Revoke `DELETE` privilege on all nodes and relationships in a specified graph from the specified role.

``````GRANT SET LABEL node_label
ON GRAPH * TO role_name``````

Grant `SET LABEL` privilege for the specified label on all graphs to the specified role.

``````DENY REMOVE LABEL *
ON GRAPH `database-name` TO role_name``````

Deny `REMOVE LABEL` privilege for all labels on a specified graph to the specified role.

``````GRANT SET PROPERTY {prop_name}
ON GRAPH `database-name` RELATIONSHIPS rel_type TO role_name``````

Grant `SET PROPERTY` privilege on a specified property, on all relationships with a specified type in a specified graph, to the specified role.

``````GRANT MERGE {*}
ON GRAPH * NODES node_label TO role_name``````

Grant `MERGE` privilege on all properties, on all nodes with a specified label in all graphs, to the specified role.

``````REVOKE WRITE
ON GRAPH * FROM role_name``````

Revoke `WRITE` privilege on all graphs from the specified role.

# ON DATABASE Privileges

``````GRANT ALL DATABASE PRIVILEGES
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `ALL DATABASE PRIVILEGES` privilege for all databases to the specified role.

• Allows access (`GRANT ACCESS`).
• Index management (`GRANT INDEX MANAGEMENT`).
• Constraint management (`GRANT CONSTRAINT MANAGEMENT`).
• Name management (`GRANT NAME MANAGEMENT`).
Note that the privileges for starting and stopping all databases, and transaction management, are not included.

``GRANT ALL ON DATABASE * TO role_name``

Short form for grant `ALL DATABASE PRIVILEGES` privilege.

• `GRANT` – gives privileges to roles.
• `DENY` – denies privileges to roles.
To remove a granted or denied privilege, prepend the privilege query with `REVOKE` and replace the `TO` with `FROM`; (`REVOKE GRANT ALL ON DATABASE * FROM role_name`).

``````REVOKE ACCESS
ON HOME DATABASE FROM role_name``````

Revoke `ACCESS` privilege to access and run queries against the home database from the specified role.

``````GRANT START
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `START` privilege to start all databases to the specified role.

``````DENY STOP
ON HOME DATABASE TO role_name``````

Deny `STOP` privilege to stop the home database to the specified role.

# ON DATABASE - INDEX MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT INDEX MANAGEMENT
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `INDEX MANAGEMENT` privilege to create, drop, and list indexes for all database to the specified role.

• Allow creating an index - (`GRANT CREATE INDEX`).
• Allow removing an index - (`GRANT DROP INDEX`).
• Allow listing an index - (`GRANT SHOW INDEX`).

``````GRANT CREATE INDEX
ON DATABASE `database-name` TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE INDEX` privilege to create indexes on a specified database to the specified role.

``````GRANT DROP INDEX
ON DATABASE `database-name` TO role_name``````

Grant `DROP INDEX` privilege to drop indexes on a specified database to the specified role.

``````GRANT SHOW INDEX
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW INDEX` privilege to list indexes on all databases to the specified role.

# ON DATABASE - CONSTRAINT MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT CONSTRAINT MANAGEMENT
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `CONSTRAINT MANAGEMENT` privilege to create, drop, and list constraints for all database to the specified role.

• Allow creating a constraint - (`GRANT CREATE CONSTRAINT`).
• Allow removing a constraint - (`GRANT DROP CONSTRAINT`).
• Allow listing a constraint - (`GRANT SHOW CONSTRAINT`).

``````GRANT CREATE CONSTRAINT
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE CONSTRAINT` privilege to create constraints on all databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT DROP CONSTRAINT
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `DROP CONSTRAINT` privilege to create constraints on all databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT SHOW CONSTRAINT
ON DATABASE `database-name` TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW CONSTRAINT` privilege to list constraints on a specified database to the specified role.

# ON DATABASE - NAME MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT NAME MANAGEMENT
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `NAME MANAGEMENT` privilege to create new labels, new relationship types, and new property names for all databases to the specified role.

• Allow creating a new label - (`GRANT CREATE NEW LABEL`).
• Allow creating a new relationship type - (`GRANT CREATE NEW TYPE`).
• Allow creating a new property name - (`GRANT CREATE NEW NAME`).

``````GRANT CREATE NEW LABEL
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE NEW LABEL` privilege to create new labels on all databases to the specified role.

``````DENY CREATE NEW TYPE
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Deny `CREATE NEW TYPE` privilege to create new relationship types on all databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT CREATE NEW NAME
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE NEW NAME` privilege to create new property names on all databases to the specified role.

# ON DATABASE - TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT (*)
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT` privilege to show and terminate transactions on all users, for all databases, to the specified role.

• Allow listing transactions - (`GRANT SHOW TRANSACTION`).
• Allow terminate transactions - (`GRANT TERMINATE TRANSACTION`).

``````GRANT SHOW TRANSACTION (*)
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW TRANSACTION` privilege to list transactions on all users on all databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT SHOW TRANSACTION (user_name1, user_name2)
ON HOME DATABASE TO role_name1, role_name2``````

Grant `SHOW TRANSACTION` privilege to list transactions by the specified users on home database to the specified roles.

``````GRANT TERMINATE TRANSACTION (*)
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Grant `TERMINATE TRANSACTION` privilege to terminate transactions on all users on all databases to the specified role.

# ON DBMS Privileges

``````GRANT ALL DBMS PRIVILEGES
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ALL DBMS PRIVILEGES` privilege to perform management for roles, users, databases, aliases, and privileges to the specified role. Also privileges to execute procedures and user defined functions are granted.

• Allow controlling roles - (`GRANT ROLE MANAGEMENT`).
• Allow controlling users - (`GRANT USER MANAGEMENT`).
• Allow controlling databases - (`GRANT DATABASE MANAGEMENT`).
• Allow controlling aliases - (`GRANT ALIAS MANAGEMENT`).
• Allow controlling privileges - (`GRANT PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT`).
• Allow user impersonation - (`GRANT IMPERSONATE (*)`).
• Allow to execute all procedures with elevated privileges.
• Allow to execute all user defined functions with elevated privileges.

``````GRANT ALL
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Short form for grant `ALL DBMS PRIVILEGES` privilege.

• `GRANT` – gives privileges to roles.
• `DENY` – denies privileges to roles.
To remove a granted or denied privilege, prepend the privilege query with `REVOKE` and replace the `TO` with `FROM`; (`REVOKE GRANT ALL ON DBMS FROM role_name`).

``````DENY IMPERSONATE (user_name1, user_name2)
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `IMPERSONATE` privilege to impersonate the specified users (`user_name1` and `user_name2`) to the specified role.

``````REVOKE IMPERSONATE (*)
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Revoke `IMPERSONATE` privilege to impersonate all users from the specified role.

``````GRANT EXECUTE PROCEDURE *
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to execute all procedures.

``````GRANT BOOSTED EXECUTE PROCEDURE *
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to use elevated privileges when executing all procedures.

``````GRANT EXECUTE ADMIN PROCEDURES
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to execute procedures annotated with `@Admin`. The procedures are executed with elevated privileges.

``````GRANT EXECUTE FUNCTIONS *
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to execute all user defined functions.

``````GRANT BOOSTED EXECUTE FUNCTIONS *
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to use elevated privileges when executing all user defined functions.

# ON DBMS - ROLE MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT ROLE MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ROLE MANAGEMENT` privilege to manage roles to the specified role.

• Allow creating roles - (`GRANT CREATE ROLE`).
• Allow renaming roles - (`GRANT RENAME ROLE`).
• Allow deleting roles - (`GRANT DROP ROLE`).
• Allow assigning (`GRANT`) roles to a user - (`GRANT ASSIGN ROLE`).
• Allow removing (`REVOKE`) roles from a user - (`GRANT REMOVE ROLE`).
• Allow listing roles - (`GRANT SHOW ROLE`).

``````GRANT CREATE ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE ROLE` privilege to create roles to the specified role.

``````GRANT RENAME ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `RENAME ROLE` privilege to rename roles to the specified role.

``````DENY DROP ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `DROP ROLE` privilege to delete roles to the specified role.

``````GRANT ASSIGN ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ASSIGN ROLE` privilege to assign roles to users to the specified role.

``````DENY REMOVE ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `REMOVE ROLE` privilege to remove roles from users to the specified role.

``````GRANT SHOW ROLE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW ROLE` privilege to list roles to the specified role.

# ON DBMS - USER MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT USER MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `USER MANAGEMENT` privilege to manage users to the specified role.

• Allow creating users - (`GRANT CREATE USER`).
• Allow renaming users - (`GRANT RENAME USER`).
• Allow modifying a user - (`GRANT ALTER USER`).
• Allow deleting users - (`GRANT DROP USER`).
• Allow listing users - (`GRANT SHOW USER`).

``````DENY CREATE USER
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `CREATE USER` privilege to create users to the specified role.

``````GRANT RENAME USER
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `RENAME USER` privilege to rename users to the specified role.

``````GRANT ALTER USER
ON DBMS TO my_role``````

Grant `ALTER USER` privilege to alter users to the specified role.

• Allow changing a user's password - (`GRANT SET PASSWORD`).
• Allow changing a user's home database - (`GRANT SET USER HOME DATABASE`).
• Allow changing a user's status - (`GRANT USER STATUS`).

``````DENY SET PASSWORD
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `SET PASSWORD` privilege to alter a user password to the specified role.

``````GRANT SET USER HOME DATABASE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SET USER HOME DATABASE` privilege to alter the home database of users to the specified role.

``````GRANT SET USER STATUS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SET USER STATUS` privilege to alter user account status to the specified role.

``````GRANT DROP USER
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `DROP USER` privilege to delete users to the specified role.

``````DENY SHOW USER
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Deny `SHOW USER` privilege to list users to the specified role.

# ON DBMS - DATABASE MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT DATABASE MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `DATABASE MANAGEMENT` privilege to manage databases to the specified role.

• Allow creating standard databases - (`GRANT CREATE DATABASE`).
• Allow deleting standard databases - (`GRANT DROP DATABASE`).
• Allow modifying standard databases - (`GRANT ALTER DATABASE`).
• Allow managing composite databases - (`GRANT COMPOSITE DATABASE MANAGEMENT`).

``````GRANT CREATE DATABASE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE DATABASE` privilege to create standard databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT DROP DATABASE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `DROP DATABASE` privilege to delete standard databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT ALTER DATABASE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ALTER DATABASE` privilege to alter standard databases the specified role.

• Allow modifying access mode for standard databases - (`GRANT SET DATABASE ACCESS`).
• Allow modifying topology settings for standard databases.
``````GRANT SET DATABASE ACCESS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SET DATABASE ACCESS` privilege to set database access mode for standard databases to the specified role.

``````GRANT COMPOSITE DATABASE MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant all privileges to manage composite databases to the specified role.

• Allow creating composite databases - (`CREATE COMPOSITE DATABASE`).
• Allow deleting composite databases - (`DROP COMPOSITE DATABASE`).
``````DENY CREATE COMPOSITE DATABASE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Denies the specified role the privilege to create composite databases.

``````REVOKE DROP COMPOSITE DATABASE
ON DBMS FROM role_name``````

Revokes the granted and denied privileges to delete composite databases from the specified role.

``````GRANT SERVER MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Enables the specified role to show, enable, rename, alter, reallocate, deallocate, and drop servers.

``````DENY SHOW SERVERS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Denies the specified role the privilege to show information about the serves.

# ON DBMS - ALIAS MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT ALIAS MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ALIAS MANAGEMENT` privilege to manage aliases to the specified role.

• Allow creating aliases - (`GRANT CREATE ALIAS`).
• Allow deleting aliases - (`GRANT DROP ALIAS`).
• Allow modifying aliases - (`GRANT ALTER ALIAS`).
• Allow listing aliases - (`GRANT SHOW ALIAS`).

``````GRANT CREATE ALIAS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `CREATE ALIAS` privilege to create aliases to the specified role.

``````GRANT DROP ALIAS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `DROP ALIAS` privilege to delete aliases to the specified role.

``````GRANT ALTER ALIAS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ALTER ALIAS` privilege to alter aliases to the specified role.

``````GRANT SHOW ALIAS
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW ALIAS` privilege to list aliases to the specified role.

# ON DBMS - PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT Privileges

``````GRANT PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENT` privilege to manage privileges for the Neo4j DBMS to the specified role.

• Allow assigning (`GRANT|DENY`) privileges for a role - (`GRANT ASSIGN PRIVILEGE`).
• Allow removing (`REVOKE`) privileges for a role - (`GRANT REMOVE PRIVILEGE`).
• Allow listing privileges - (`GRANT SHOW PRIVILEGE`).

``````GRANT ASSIGN PRIVILEGE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `ASSIGN PRIVILEGE` privilege, allows the specified role to assign privileges for roles.

``````GRANT REMOVE PRIVILEGE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `REMOVE PRIVILEGE` privilege, allows the specified role to remove privileges for roles.

``````GRANT SHOW PRIVILEGE
ON DBMS TO role_name``````

Grant `SHOW PRIVILEGE` privilege to list privileges to the specified role.

# ON DBMS - IMMUTABLE Privileges

Immutable privileges can only be administered when auth is disabled - that is, when the configuration setting `dbms.security.auth_enabled` is set to `false`.
``````GRANT IMMUTABLE TRAVERSE
ON GRAPH * TO role_name``````

Grant immutable `TRAVERSE` privilege on all graphs to the specified role.

``````DENY IMMUTABLE START
ON DATABASE * TO role_name``````

Deny immutable `START` privilege to start all databases to the specified role.

``````REVOKE IMMUTABLE CREATE ROLE
ON DBMS FROM role_name``````

Revoke immutable `CREATE ROLE` privilege from the specified role. When immutable is specified in conjunction with a `REVOKE` command, it will act as a filter and only remove the matching immutable privileges.