Operators

1. Operators at a glance

Aggregation operators

DISTINCT

Property operators

. for static property access, [] for dynamic property access, = for replacing all properties, += for mutating specific properties

Mathematical operators

+, -, *, /, %, ^

Comparison operators

=, <>, <, >, <=, >=, IS NULL, IS NOT NULL

String-specific comparison operators

STARTS WITH, ENDS WITH, CONTAINS

Boolean operators

AND, OR, XOR, NOT

String operators

+ for concatenation, =~ for regex matching

Temporal operators

+ and - for operations between durations and temporal instants/durations, * and / for operations between durations and numbers

Map operators

. for static value access by key, [] for dynamic value access by key

List operators

+ for concatenation, IN to check existence of an element in a list, [] for accessing element(s) dynamically

2. Aggregation operators

The aggregation operators comprise:

  • remove duplicates values: DISTINCT

2.1. Using the DISTINCT operator

Retrieve the unique eye colors from Person nodes.

Query
CREATE
  (a:Person {name: 'Anne', eyeColor: 'blue'}),
  (b:Person {name: 'Bill', eyeColor: 'brown'}),
  (c:Person {name: 'Carol', eyeColor: 'blue'})
WITH [a, b, c] AS ps
UNWIND ps AS p
RETURN DISTINCT p.eyeColor

Even though both 'Anne' and 'Carol' have blue eyes, 'blue' is only returned once.

Table 1. Result
p.eyeColor

"blue"

"brown"

2 rows, Nodes created: 3
Properties set: 6
Labels added: 3

DISTINCT is commonly used in conjunction with aggregating functions.

3. Property operators

The property operators pertain to a node or a relationship, and comprise:

  • statically access the property of a node or relationship using the dot operator: .

  • dynamically access the property of a node or relationship using the subscript operator: []

  • property replacement = for replacing all properties of a node or relationship

  • property mutation operator += for setting specific properties of a node or relationship

3.1. Statically accessing a property of a node or relationship using the . operator

Query
CREATE
  (a:Person {name: 'Jane', livesIn: 'London'}),
  (b:Person {name: 'Tom', livesIn: 'Copenhagen'})
WITH a, b
MATCH (p:Person)
RETURN  p.name
Table 2. Result
p.name

"Jane"

"Tom"

2 rows, Nodes created: 2
Properties set: 4
Labels added: 2

3.2. Filtering on a dynamically-computed property key using the [] operator

Query
CREATE
  (a:Restaurant {name: 'Hungry Jo', rating_hygiene: 10, rating_food: 7}),
  (b:Restaurant {name: 'Buttercup Tea Rooms', rating_hygiene: 5, rating_food: 6}),
  (c1:Category {name: 'hygiene'}),
  (c2:Category {name: 'food'})
WITH a, b, c1, c2
MATCH (restaurant:Restaurant), (category:Category)
WHERE restaurant["rating_" + category.name] > 6
RETURN DISTINCT restaurant.name
Table 3. Result
restaurant.name

"Hungry Jo"

1 row, Nodes created: 4
Properties set: 8
Labels added: 4

See Basic usage for more details on dynamic property access.

The behavior of the [] operator with respect to null is detailed here.

3.3. Replacing all properties of a node or relationship using the = operator

Query
CREATE (a:Person {name: 'Jane', age: 20})
WITH a
MATCH (p:Person {name: 'Jane'})
SET p = {name: 'Ellen', livesIn: 'London'}
RETURN p.name, p.age, p.livesIn

All the existing properties on the node are replaced by those provided in the map; i.e. the name property is updated from Jane to Ellen, the age property is deleted, and the livesIn property is added.

Table 4. Result
p.name p.age p.livesIn

"Ellen"

<null>

"London"

1 row, Nodes created: 1
Properties set: 5
Labels added: 1

See Replace all properties using a map and = for more details on using the property replacement operator =.

3.4. Mutating specific properties of a node or relationship using the += operator

Query
CREATE (a:Person {name: 'Jane', age: 20})
WITH a
MATCH (p:Person {name: 'Jane'})
SET p += {name: 'Ellen', livesIn: 'London'}
RETURN p.name, p.age, p.livesIn

The properties on the node are updated as follows by those provided in the map: the name property is updated from Jane to Ellen, the age property is left untouched, and the livesIn property is added.

Table 5. Result
p.name p.age p.livesIn

"Ellen"

20

"London"

1 row, Nodes created: 1
Properties set: 4
Labels added: 1

See Mutate specific properties using a map and += for more details on using the property mutation operator +=.

4. Mathematical operators

The mathematical operators comprise:

  • addition: +

  • subtraction or unary minus: -

  • multiplication: *

  • division: /

  • modulo division: %

  • exponentiation: ^

4.1. Using the exponentiation operator ^

Query
WITH 2 AS number, 3 AS exponent
RETURN number ^ exponent AS result
Table 6. Result
result

8.0

1 row

4.2. Using the unary minus operator -

Query
WITH -3 AS a, 4 AS b
RETURN b - a AS result
Table 7. Result
result

7

1 row

5. Comparison operators

The comparison operators comprise:

  • equality: =

  • inequality: <>

  • less than: <

  • greater than: >

  • less than or equal to: <=

  • greater than or equal to: >=

  • IS NULL

  • IS NOT NULL

5.1. String-specific comparison operators comprise:

  • STARTS WITH: perform case-sensitive prefix searching on strings

  • ENDS WITH: perform case-sensitive suffix searching on strings

  • CONTAINS: perform case-sensitive inclusion searching in strings

5.2. Comparing two numbers

Query
WITH 4 AS one, 3 AS two
RETURN one > two AS result
Table 8. Result
result

true

1 row

See Equality and comparison of values for more details on the behavior of comparison operators, and Using ranges for more examples showing how these may be used.

5.3. Using STARTS WITH to filter names

Query
WITH ['John', 'Mark', 'Jonathan', 'Bill'] AS somenames
UNWIND somenames AS names
WITH names AS candidate
WHERE candidate STARTS WITH 'Jo'
RETURN candidate
Table 9. Result
candidate

"John"

"Jonathan"

2 rows

String matching contains more information regarding the string-specific comparison operators as well as additional examples illustrating the usage thereof.

5.4. Equality and comparison of values

5.4.1. Equality

Cypher supports comparing values (see Values and types) by equality using the = and <> operators.

Values of the same type are only equal if they are the same identical value (e.g. 3 = 3 and "x" <> "xy").

Maps are only equal if they map exactly the same keys to equal values and lists are only equal if they contain the same sequence of equal values (e.g. [3, 4] = [1+2, 8/2]).

Values of different types are considered as equal according to the following rules:

  • Paths are treated as lists of alternating nodes and relationships and are equal to all lists that contain that very same sequence of nodes and relationships.

  • Testing any value against null with both the = and the <> operators always is null. This includes null = null and null <> null. The only way to reliably test if a value v is null is by using the special v IS NULL, or v IS NOT NULL equality operators.

All other combinations of types of values cannot be compared with each other. Especially, nodes, relationships, and literal maps are incomparable with each other.

It is an error to compare values that cannot be compared.

5.5. Ordering and comparison of values

The comparison operators <=, < (for ascending) and >=, > (for descending) are used to compare values for ordering. The following points give some details on how the comparison is performed.

  • Numerical values are compared for ordering using numerical order (e.g. 3 < 4 is true).

  • The special value java.lang.Double.NaN is regarded as being larger than all other numbers.

  • String values are compared for ordering using lexicographic order (e.g. "x" < "xy").

  • Boolean values are compared for ordering such that false < true.

  • Comparison of spatial values:

    • Point values can only be compared within the same Coordinate Reference System (CRS) — otherwise, the result will be null.

    • For two points a and b within the same CRS, a is considered to be greater than b if a.x > b.x and a.y > b.y (and a.z > b.z for 3D points).

    • a is considered less than b if a.x < b.x and a.y < b.y (and a.z < b.z for 3D points).

    • If none if the above is true, the points are considered incomparable and any comparison operator between them will return null.

  • Ordering of spatial values:

    • ORDER BY requires all values to be orderable.

    • Points are ordered after arrays and before temporal types.

    • Points of different CRS are ordered by the CRS code (the value of SRID field). For the currently supported set of Coordinate Reference Systems this means the order: 4326, 4979, 7302, 9157

    • Points of the same CRS are ordered by each coordinate value in turn, x first, then y and finally z.

    • Note that this order is different to the order returned by the spatial index, which will be the order of the space filling curve.

  • Comparison of temporal values:

    • Temporal instant values are comparable within the same type. An instant is considered less than another instant if it occurs before that instant in time, and it is considered greater than if it occurs after.

    • Instant values that occur at the same point in time — but that have a different time zone — are not considered equal, and must therefore be ordered in some predictable way. Cypher prescribes that, after the primary order of point in time, instant values be ordered by effective time zone offset, from west (negative offset from UTC) to east (positive offset from UTC). This has the effect that times that represent the same point in time will be ordered with the time with the earliest local time first. If two instant values represent the same point in time, and have the same time zone offset, but a different named time zone (this is possible for DateTime only, since Time only has an offset), these values are not considered equal, and ordered by the time zone identifier, alphabetically, as its third ordering component.

    • Duration values cannot be compared, since the length of a day, month or year is not known without knowing which day, month or year it is. Since Duration values are not comparable, the result of applying a comparison operator between two Duration values is null. If the type, point in time, offset, and time zone name are all equal, then the values are equal, and any difference in order is impossible to observe.

  • Ordering of temporal values:

    • ORDER BY requires all values to be orderable.

    • Temporal instances are ordered after spatial instances and before strings.

    • Comparable values should be ordered in the same order as implied by their comparison order.

    • Temporal instant values are first ordered by type, and then by comparison order within the type.

    • Since no complete comparison order can be defined for Duration values, we define an order for ORDER BY specifically for Duration:

      • Duration values are ordered by normalising all components as if all years were 365.2425 days long (PT8765H49M12S), all months were 30.436875 (1/12 year) days long (PT730H29M06S), and all days were 24 hours long [1].

  • Comparing for ordering when one argument is null (e.g. null < 3 is null).

5.6. Chaining comparison operations

Comparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., x < y <= z is equivalent to x < y AND y <= z.

Formally, if a, b, c, ..., y, z are expressions and op1, op2, ..., opN are comparison operators, then a op1 b op2 c ... y opN z is equivalent to a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z.

Note that a op1 b op2 c does not imply any kind of comparison between a and c, so that, e.g., x < y > z is perfectly legal (although perhaps not elegant).

The example:

MATCH (n) WHERE 21 < n.age <= 30 RETURN n

is equivalent to

MATCH (n) WHERE 21 < n.age AND n.age <= 30 RETURN n

Thus it will match all nodes where the age is between 21 and 30.

This syntax extends to all equality and inequality comparisons, as well as extending to chains longer than three.

For example:

a < b = c <= d <> e

Is equivalent to:

a < b AND b = c AND c <= d AND d <> e

6. Boolean operators

The boolean operators — also known as logical operators — comprise:

  • conjunction: AND

  • disjunction: OR,

  • exclusive disjunction: XOR

  • negation: NOT

Here is the truth table for AND, OR, XOR and NOT.

a b a AND b a OR b a XOR b NOT a

false

false

false

false

false

true

false

null

false

null

null

true

false

true

false

true

true

true

true

false

false

true

true

false

true

null

null

true

null

false

true

true

true

true

false

false

null

false

false

null

null

null

null

null

null

null

null

null

null

true

null

true

null

null

6.1. Using boolean operators to filter numbers

Query
WITH [2, 4, 7, 9, 12] AS numberlist
UNWIND numberlist AS number
WITH number
WHERE number = 4 OR (number > 6 AND number < 10)
RETURN number
Table 10. Result
number

4

7

9

3 rows

7. String operators

The string operators comprise:

  • concatenating strings: +

  • matching a regular expression: =~

7.1. Using a regular expression with =~ to filter words

Query
WITH ['mouse', 'chair', 'door', 'house'] AS wordlist
UNWIND wordlist AS word
WITH word
WHERE word =~ '.*ous.*'
RETURN word
Table 11. Result
word

"mouse"

"house"

2 rows

Further information and examples regarding the use of regular expressions in filtering can be found in Regular expressions. In addition, refer to String-specific comparison operators comprise: for details on string-specific comparison operators.

8. Temporal operators

Temporal operators comprise:

  • adding a Duration to either a temporal instant or another Duration: +

  • subtracting a Duration from either a temporal instant or another Duration: -

  • multiplying a Duration with a number: *

  • dividing a Duration by a number: /

The following table shows — for each combination of operation and operand type — the type of the value returned from the application of each temporal operator:

Operator Left-hand operand Right-hand operand Type of result

+

Temporal instant

Duration

The type of the temporal instant

+

Duration

Temporal instant

The type of the temporal instant

-

Temporal instant

Duration

The type of the temporal instant

+

Duration

Duration

Duration

-

Duration

Duration

Duration

*

Duration

Number

Duration

*

Number

Duration

Duration

/

Duration

Number

Duration

8.1. Adding and subtracting a Duration to or from a temporal instant

Query
WITH
  localdatetime({year:1984, month:10, day:11, hour:12, minute:31, second:14}) AS aDateTime,
  duration({years: 12, nanoseconds: 2}) AS aDuration
RETURN aDateTime + aDuration, aDateTime - aDuration
Table 12. Result
aDateTime + aDuration aDateTime - aDuration

1996-10-11T12:31:14.000000002

1972-10-11T12:31:13.999999998

1 row

Components of a Duration that do not apply to the temporal instant are ignored. For example, when adding a Duration to a Date, the hours, minutes, seconds and nanoseconds of the Duration are ignored (Time behaves in an analogous manner):

Query
WITH
  date({year:1984, month:10, day:11}) AS aDate,
  duration({years: 12, nanoseconds: 2}) AS aDuration
RETURN aDate + aDuration, aDate - aDuration
Table 13. Result
aDate + aDuration aDate - aDuration

1996-10-11

1972-10-11

1 row

Adding two durations to a temporal instant is not an associative operation. This is because non-existing dates are truncated to the nearest existing date:

Query
RETURN
  (date("2011-01-31") + duration("P1M")) + duration("P12M") AS date1,
  date("2011-01-31") + (duration("P1M") + duration("P12M")) AS date2
Table 14. Result
date1 date2

2012-02-28

2012-02-29

1 row

8.2. Adding and subtracting a Duration to or from another Duration

Query
WITH
  duration({years: 12, months: 5, days: 14, hours: 16, minutes: 12, seconds: 70, nanoseconds: 1}) as duration1,
  duration({months:1, days: -14, hours: 16, minutes: -12, seconds: 70}) AS duration2
RETURN duration1, duration2, duration1 + duration2, duration1 - duration2
Table 15. Result
duration1 duration2 duration1 + duration2 duration1 - duration2

P12Y5M14DT16H13M10.000000001S

P1M-14DT15H49M10S

P12Y6MT32H2M20.000000001S

P12Y4M28DT24M0.000000001S

1 row

8.3. Multiplying and dividing a Duration with or by a number

These operations are interpreted simply as component-wise operations with overflow to smaller units based on an average length of units in the case of division (and multiplication with fractions).

Query
WITH duration({days: 14, minutes: 12, seconds: 70, nanoseconds: 1}) AS aDuration
RETURN aDuration, aDuration * 2, aDuration / 3
Table 16. Result
aDuration aDuration * 2 aDuration / 3

P14DT13M10.000000001S

P28DT26M20.000000002S

P4DT16H4M23.333333333S

1 row

9. Map operators

The map operators comprise:

  • statically access the value of a map by key using the dot operator: .

  • dynamically access the value of a map by key using the subscript operator: []

The behavior of the [] operator with respect to null is detailed in The [] operator and null.

9.1. Statically accessing the value of a nested map by key using the . operator

Query
WITH {person: {name: 'Anne', age: 25}} AS p
RETURN  p.person.name
Table 17. Result
p.person.name

"Anne"

1 row

9.2. Dynamically accessing the value of a map by key using the [] operator and a parameter

A parameter may be used to specify the key of the value to access:

Parameters
{
  "myKey" : "name"
}
Query
WITH {name: 'Anne', age: 25} AS a
RETURN a[$myKey] AS result
Table 18. Result
result

"Anne"

1 row

More details on maps can be found in Maps.

10. List operators

The list operators comprise:

  • concatenating lists l1 and l2: [l1] + [l2]

  • checking if an element e exists in a list l: e IN [l]

  • dynamically accessing an element(s) in a list using the subscript operator: []

The behavior of the IN and [] operators with respect to null is detailed here.

10.1. Concatenating two lists using +

Query
RETURN [1,2,3,4,5] + [6,7] AS myList
Table 19. Result
myList

[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]

1 row

10.2. Using IN to check if a number is in a list

Query
WITH [2, 3, 4, 5] AS numberlist
UNWIND numberlist AS number
WITH number
WHERE number IN [2, 3, 8]
RETURN number
Table 20. Result
number

2

3

2 rows

10.3. Using IN for more complex list membership operations

The general rule is that the IN operator will evaluate to true if the list given as the right-hand operand contains an element which has the same type and contents (or value) as the left-hand operand. Lists are only comparable to other lists, and elements of a list innerList are compared pairwise in ascending order from the first element in innerList to the last element in innerList.

The following query checks whether or not the list [2, 1] is an element of the list [1, [2, 1], 3]:

Query
RETURN [2, 1] IN [1, [2, 1], 3] AS inList

The query evaluates to true as the right-hand list contains, as an element, the list [1, 2] which is of the same type (a list) and contains the same contents (the numbers 2 and 1 in the given order) as the left-hand operand. If the left-hand operator had been [1, 2] instead of [2, 1], the query would have returned false.

Table 21. Result
inList

true

1 row

At first glance, the contents of the left-hand operand and the right-hand operand appear to be the same in the following query:

Query
RETURN [1, 2] IN [1, 2] AS inList

However, IN evaluates to false as the right-hand operand does not contain an element that is of the same type — i.e. a list — as the left-hand-operand.

Table 22. Result
inList

false

1 row

The following query can be used to ascertain whether or not a list — obtained from, say, the labels() function — contains at least one element that is also present in another list:

MATCH (n)
WHERE size([label IN labels(n) WHERE label IN ['Person', 'Employee'] | 1]) > 0
RETURN count(n)

As long as labels(n) returns either Person or Employee (or both), the query will return a value greater than zero.

10.4. Accessing elements in a list using the [] operator

Query
WITH ['Anne', 'John', 'Bill', 'Diane', 'Eve'] AS names
RETURN names[1..3] AS result

The square brackets will extract the elements from the start index 1, and up to (but excluding) the end index 3.

Table 23. Result
result

["John","Bill"]

1 row

10.5. Dynamically accessing an element in a list using the [] operator and a parameter

A parameter may be used to specify the index of the element to access:

Parameters
{
  "myIndex" : 1
}
Query
WITH ['Anne', 'John', 'Bill', 'Diane', 'Eve'] AS names
RETURN names[$myIndex] AS result
Table 24. Result
result

"John"

1 row

10.6. Using IN with [] on a nested list

IN can be used in conjunction with [] to test whether an element exists in a nested list:

Parameters
{
  "myIndex" : 1
}
Query
WITH [[1, 2, 3]] AS l
RETURN 3 IN l[0] AS result
Table 25. Result
result

true

1 row

More details on lists can be found in Lists in general.


1. The 365.2425 days per year comes from the frequency of leap years. A leap year occurs on a year with an ordinal number divisible by 4, that is not divisible by 100, unless it divisible by 400. This means that over 400 years there are ((365 * 4 + 1) * 25 - 1) * 4 + 1 = 146097 days, which means an average of 365.2425 days per year.