## 4.4. List functions

List functions return lists of things — nodes in a path, and so on.

Further details and examples of lists may be found in Section 2.11, “Lists” and Section 2.7.10, “List operators”.

Functions:

Figure 4.4. Graph ### 4.4.1. keys()

`keys` returns a list containing the string representations for all the property names of a node, relationship, or map.

Syntax: `keys(expression)`

Returns:

 A list containing String elements.

Arguments:

Name Description

`expression`

An expression that returns a node, a relationship, or a map.

Considerations:

 `keys(null)` returns `null`.

Query.

``````MATCH (a)
WHERE a.name = 'Alice'
RETURN keys(a)``````

A list containing the names of all the properties on the node bound to `a` is returned.

Table 4.44. Result
keys(a)

1 row

`["name","eyes","age"]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH (a) WHERE a.name = 'Alice' RETURN keys(a)

### 4.4.2. labels()

`labels` returns a list containing the string representations for all the labels of a node.

Syntax: `labels(node)`

Returns:

 A list containing String elements.

Arguments:

Name Description

`node`

An expression that returns a single node.

Considerations:

 `labels(null)` returns `null`.

Query.

``````MATCH (a)
WHERE a.name = 'Alice'
RETURN labels(a)``````

A list containing all the labels of the node bound to `a` is returned.

Table 4.45. Result
labels(a)

1 row

`["Person","Developer"]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH (a) WHERE a.name = 'Alice' RETURN labels(a)

### 4.4.3. nodes()

`nodes()` returns a list containing all the nodes in a path.

Syntax: `nodes(path)`

Returns:

 A list containing Node elements.

Arguments:

Name Description

`path`

An expression that returns a path.

Considerations:

 `nodes(null)` returns `null`.

Query.

``````MATCH p =(a)-->(b)-->(c)
WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND c.name = 'Eskil'
RETURN nodes(p)``````

A list containing all the nodes in the path `p` is returned.

Table 4.46. Result
nodes(p)

1 row

`[Node{name:"Alice",eyes:"brown",age:38},Node{name:"Bob",eyes:"blue",age:25},Node{array:["one","two","three"],name:"Eskil",eyes:"blue",age:41}]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH p = (a)-->(b)-->(c) WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND c.name = 'Eskil' RETURN nodes(p)

### 4.4.4. range()

`range()` returns a list comprising all integer values within a range bounded by a start value `start` and end value `end`, where the difference `step` between any two consecutive values is constant; i.e. an arithmetic progression. The range is inclusive, and the arithmetic progression will therefore always contain `start` and — depending on the values of `start`, `step` and `end` — `end`.

Syntax: `range(start, end [, step])`

Returns:

 A list of Integer elements.

Arguments:

Name Description

`start`

An expression that returns an integer value.

`end`

An expression that returns an integer value.

`step`

A numeric expression defining the difference between any two consecutive values, with a default of `1`.

Query.

``RETURN range(0, 10), range(2, 18, 3)``

Two lists of numbers in the given ranges are returned.

Table 4.47. Result
range(0, 10) range(2, 18, 3)

1 row

`[0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]`

`[2,5,8,11,14,17]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) RETURN range(0, 10), range(2, 18, 3)

### 4.4.5. reduce()

`reduce()` returns the value resulting from the application of an expression on each successive element in a list in conjunction with the result of the computation thus far. This function will iterate through each element `e` in the given list, run the expression on `e` — taking into account the current partial result — and store the new partial result in the accumulator. This function is analogous to the `fold` or `reduce` method in functional languages such as Lisp and Scala.

Syntax: `reduce(accumulator = initial, variable IN list | expression)`

Returns:

 The type of the value returned depends on the arguments provided, along with the semantics of `expression`.

Arguments:

Name Description

`accumulator`

A variable that will hold the result and the partial results as the list is iterated.

`initial`

An expression that runs once to give a starting value to the accumulator.

`list`

An expression that returns a list.

`variable`

The closure will have a variable introduced in its context. We decide here which variable to use.

`expression`

This expression will run once per value in the list, and produce the result value.

Query.

``````MATCH p =(a)-->(b)-->(c)
WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND b.name = 'Bob' AND c.name = 'Daniel'
RETURN reduce(totalAge = 0, n IN nodes(p)| totalAge + n.age) AS reduction``````

The `age` property of all nodes in the path are summed and returned as a single value.

Table 4.48. Result
reduction

1 row

`117`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH p = (a)-->(b)-->(c) WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND b.name = 'Bob' AND c.name = 'Daniel' RETURN reduce(totalAge = 0, n IN nodes(p) | totalAge + n.age) AS reduction

### 4.4.6. relationships()

`relationships()` returns a list containing all the relationships in a path.

Syntax: `relationships(path)`

Returns:

 A list containing Relationship elements.

Arguments:

Name Description

`path`

An expression that returns a path.

Considerations:

 `relationships(null)` returns `null`.

Query.

``````MATCH p =(a)-->(b)-->(c)
WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND c.name = 'Eskil'
RETURN relationships(p)``````

A list containing all the relationships in the path `p` is returned.

Table 4.49. Result
relationships(p)

1 row

`[:KNOWS{},:MARRIED{}]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH p = (a)-->(b)-->(c) WHERE a.name = 'Alice' AND c.name = 'Eskil' RETURN relationships(p)

### 4.4.7. reverse()

`reverse()` returns a list in which the order of all elements in the original list have been reversed.

Syntax: `reverse(original)`

Returns:

 A list containing homogeneous or heterogeneous elements; the types of the elements are determined by the elements within `original`.

Arguments:

Name Description

`original`

An expression that returns a list.

Considerations:

 Any `null` element in `original` is preserved.

Query.

``````WITH [4923,'abc',521, NULL , 487] AS ids
RETURN reverse(ids)``````

Table 4.50. Result
reverse(ids)

1 row

`[487,<null>,521,"abc",4923]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) WITH [4923,'abc',521, null, 487] AS ids RETURN reverse(ids)

### 4.4.8. tail()

`tail()` returns a list `lresult` containing all the elements, excluding the first one, from a list `list`.

Syntax: `tail(list)`

Returns:

 A list containing heterogeneous elements; the types of the elements are determined by the elements in `list`.

Arguments:

Name Description

`list`

An expression that returns a list.

Query.

``````MATCH (a)
WHERE a.name = 'Eskil'
RETURN a.array, tail(a.array)``````

The property named `array` and a list comprising all but the first element of the `array` property are returned.

Table 4.51. Result
a.array tail(a.array)

1 row

`["one","two","three"]`

`["two","three"]`

Try this query live.  CREATE (alice:Person:Developer {name:'Alice', age: 38, eyes: 'brown'}), (bob {name: 'Bob', age: 25, eyes: 'blue'}), (charlie {name: 'Charlie', age: 53, eyes: 'green'}), (daniel {name: 'Daniel', age: 54, eyes: 'brown'}), (eskil {name: 'Eskil', age: 41, eyes: 'blue', array: ['one', 'two', 'three']}), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(bob), (alice)-[:KNOWS]->(charlie), (bob)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (charlie)-[:KNOWS]->(daniel), (bob)-[:MARRIED]->(eskil) MATCH (a) WHERE a.name = 'Eskil' RETURN a.array, tail(a.array)