Syntax and semantics
This section contains reference material for looking up the syntax and semantics of specific elements of graph pattern matching.
Node patterns
A node pattern is a pattern that matches a single node.
It can be used on its own in a clause such as MATCH
or EXIST
, or form part of a path pattern.
See also node pattern concepts.
Syntax
nodePattern ::= "(" [ nodeVariable ] [ labelExpression ]
[ propertyKeyValueExpression ] [ "WHERE" booleanExpression ] ")"
For rules on valid node variable names, see the Cypher^{®} naming rules.
Rules
Predicates
Three types of predicate can be specified inside a node pattern:
The boolean expression of the WHERE
clause can reference any variables within scope of the node pattern.
A node variable needs to be declared in the node pattern in order to reference it in the boolean expression.
If no predicates are specified, then the node pattern matches any node.
Variable binding
If a variable has not been declared elsewhere in the query, it will become bound to nodes when the matching of its containing path pattern is executed. If it has been bound in a previous clause, then no new nodes will be bound to the variable; any previously bound nodes that do not match in the current path pattern will lead to the match being eliminated from the results. See the section on clause composition for more details on the passing of results between clauses.
Examples
Matches all nodes with the label A
and binds them to the variable n
:
(n:A)
Matches all nodes with the label B
and a property departs
with the time
value 11:11
:
(:B { departs: time('11:11') })
Matches all nodes with the property departs
with a value equal to the current time plus 30 minutes:
(n WHERE n.departs > time() + duration('PT30M'))
Relationship patterns
A relationship pattern is a pattern that matches a single relationship. It can only be used with node patterns on either side of it.
A relationship pattern followed immediately by a quantifier is an abbreviated quantified path pattern called a quantified relationship.
See also relationship pattern concepts.
Syntax
relationshipPattern ::= fullPattern  abbreviatedRelationship
fullPattern ::=
"<[" patternFiller "]"
 "[" patternFiller "]>"
 "[" patternFiller "]"
abbreviatedRelationship ::= "<"  ""  ">"
patternFiller ::= [ relationshipVariable ] [ typeExpression ]
[ propertyKeyValueExpression ] [ "WHERE" booleanExpression ]
Note that the syntax for type expressions in relationship patterns is the same as for label expressions in node patterns (although unlike node labels, relationships must have exactly one type).
For rules on valid relationship variable names, see the Cypher naming rules.
Rules
Predicates
The following three types of predicate can be specified in the pattern filler of a full relationship pattern (i.e. a pattern with the square brackets):
A fourth type of predicate specifies the directionality of the relationship with respect to the overall path pattern, using the lessthan or greaterthan symbols to form arrows (<
and >
).
If a relationship pattern has no arrows, it will match relationships of any direction.
The boolean expression of the WHERE
clause can reference any variables within scope of the relationship pattern.
A relationship variable needs to be declared in the pattern in order to reference it in the boolean expression.
If no predicates are specified then the pattern matches all relationships.
Variable binding
If the variable has not been declared elsewhere in the query, it will become bound to relationships when the matching of its containing path pattern is executed. If it has been bound in a previous clause, then no new relationships will be bound to the variable; if any previously bound relationships do not match in the current path pattern, then those matches will be eliminated from the results.
See the chapter on clause composition for more details on the passing of results between clauses.
Examples
Matches all relationships with the type R
and binds them to the variable r
:
()[r:R]>()
Matches all relationships with type R
and property distance
equal to 100
:
()[:R {distance: 100}]>()
Matches all relationships where property distance
is between 10
and 100
:
()[r WHERE 10 < r.distance < 100]>()
Matches all relationships that connect nodes with label A
as their source and nodes with label B
as their target:
(:A)>(:B)
Matches all relationships that connect nodes with label A
and nodes with label B
, irrespective of their direction:
(:A)(:B)
Label expressions
The following applies to both the label expressions of node patterns and the type expressions of relationship patterns.
A label expression is a boolean predicate composed from label names and a wildcard symbol using disjunction, conjunction, negation and grouping. A label expression returns true when it matches the set of labels for a node.
Although relationships have a type rather than labels, the syntax for expressions matching a relationship type is identical to that of label expressions.
Syntax
labelExpression ::= ":" labelTerm
labelTerm ::=
labelIdentifier
 labelTerm "&" labelTerm
 labelTerm "" labelTerm
 "!" labelTerm
 "%"
 "(" labelTerm ")"
For valid label identifiers, see the Cypher naming rules.
Rules
The following table lists the symbols used in label expressions:
Symbol  Description  Precedence 


Wildcard.
Evaluates to 


Contained expression is evaluated before evaluating the outer expression the group is contained in. 
1 (highest) 

Negation 
2 

Conjunction 
3 

Disjunction 
4 (lowest) 
Associativity is lefttoright.
Examples
In the following table, a tick is shown where the label expression matches the node with the labels shown:
Node 

Node pattern 









✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 

✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 
✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 




✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 

✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 



✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
✅ 


✅ 


✅ 
✅ 
✅ 
As relationships have exactly one type each, this expression will never match a relationship:
[:A&B]>
Similarly, the following will always match a relationship:
[:%]>
The use of negation can make the conjunction useful in relationship patterns.
The following matches relationships that have a type that is neither A
nor B
:
[:!A&!B]>
Property keyvalue expressions
Syntax
propertyKeyValueExpression ::=
"{" propertyKeyValuePairList "}"
propertyKeyValuePairList ::=
propertyKeyValuePair [ "," propertyKeyValuePair ]
propertyKeyValuePair ::= propertyName ":" valueExpression
Rules
The property keyvalue expression is treated as a conjunction of equalities on the properties of the element that the containing pattern matches.
For example, the following node pattern:
({ p: valueExp1, q: valueExp2 })
is equivalent to the following node pattern with a WHERE
clause:
(n WHERE n.p = valueExp1 AND n.q = valueExp2)
The value expression can be any expression as listed in the section on expressions, except for path patterns (which will throw a syntax error) and regular expressions (which will be treated as string literals).
An empty property keyvalue expression matches all elements.
Property keyvalue expressions can be combined with a WHERE
clause.
Examples
Matches all nodes with property p
= 10
:
({ p: 10 })
Matches all relationships with property p
= 10
and q
equal to date 20230210
:
()[{ p: 10, q: date('20230210') }]()
Matches all relationships with its property p
equal to the property p
of its source node:
(s)[{ p: s.p }]()
Matches all nodes with property p
= 10
and property q
greater than 100
:
(n { p: 10 } WHERE n.q > 100)
Path patterns
A path pattern is the top level pattern that is matched against paths in a graph.
Syntax
pathPattern ::= [{ simplePathPattern  quantifiedPathPattern }]+
simplePathPattern ::= nodePattern
[ { relationshipPattern  quantifiedRelationship } nodePattern ]*
Rules
The minimum number of elements in the path pattern must be greater than zero. For example, a path pattern that is a quantified path pattern with a quantifier that has a lower bound of zero is not allowed:
((n)[r]>(m)){0,10} //this is not allowed
A path pattern must always begin and end with a node pattern. The following is not allowed:
(n)[r]>(m)[s] //this is not allowed
A path pattern may be composed of a concatenation of simple and quantified path patterns. Two simple path patterns, however, may not be placed next to each other. For example, the following is not allowed:
(a)<[s](b) (c)[t]>(d) //this is not allowed
When a path pattern is matched to paths in a graph, nodes can be revisited but relationships cannot.
See graph patterns for rules on declaring variables multiple times.
Examples
A single node pattern is allowed as it has at least one element:
(n)
A simple path pattern with more than one element:
(a:A)<[{p: 30}](b)[t WHERE t.q > 0]>(c:C)
A quantified path pattern can have a lower bound of zero in its quantifier as long as it abuts other patterns that have at least one element:
(:A) ((:X)[:R]()){0,10} (:B)
A quantified relationship can also have a lower bound of zero as long as the overall path pattern has at least one element:
(:A)[:R]>{0,10}(:B)
A concatenation of simple and quantified path patterns:
(a)<[s](b)[t]>(c) ((n)[r]>(m)){0,10} (:X)
Referencing nonlocal node variable in a simple path pattern:
(a)<[s:X WHERE a.p = s.p](b)
Referencing a nonlocal relationship variable within a quantified path pattern:
(:A) ((a)<[s:X WHERE a.p = s.p](b)){,5}
A variable that was introduced in a previous clause can be referenced as long as that variable was defined outside of a quantified path pattern:
MATCH (n)
MATCH ()[r WHERE r.q = n.q]() (()<[s:X WHERE n.p = s.p]()){2,3}
Quantified path patterns
This feature was introduced in Neo4j 5.9.
A quantified path pattern represents a path pattern repeated a number of times in a given range. It is composed of a path pattern, representing the path section to be repeated, followed by a quantifier, constraining the number of repetitions between a lower bound and an upper bound.
For information about an alternative version of patterns for matching paths of variable length, see variablelength relationships.
Syntax
quantifiedPathPattern ::=
"(" fixedPath [ "WHERE" booleanExpression ] ")" quantifier
fixedPath ::= nodePattern [ relationshipPattern nodePattern ]+
Rules
Minimum pattern length
The path pattern being quantified must have a length greater than zero. In other words, it must contain at least one relationship. A single node pattern cannot be quantified. For example, this is not allowed:
((x:A)){2,4} //this is not allowed
Nesting of quantified path patterns
The nesting of quantified path patterns is not allowed. For example, the following nesting of a quantified relationship in a quantified path pattern is not allowed:
(:A) (()[:R]>+()){2,3} (:B) //this is not allowed
A quantified path pattern that is part of the boolean expression within a quantified path pattern would not count as nested and is permitted. For example, the following is valid:
MATCH ((n:A)[:R]>({p: 30}) WHERE EXISTS { (n)>+(:X) }){2,3}
Group variables
Variables introduced inside of a quantified path pattern are said to be exposed as group variables outside of the definition of the pattern. As a group variable, they will be bound to either a list of nodes or a list of relationships. By contrast, variables can be treated as singletons inside the quantified path pattern where they are declared. The difference can be seen in the following query:
MATCH ((x)[r]>(z WHERE z.p > x.p)){2,3}
RETURN [n in x  n.p] AS x_p
In the boolean expression z.p > x.p
both z
and x
are singletons; in the RETURN
clause, x
is a group variable that can be iterated over like a list.
Note that this means that the WHERE
clause z.p > x.p
above needs to be inside the quantified path pattern.
The following would throw a syntax error because it is treating z
and p
as singletons:
MATCH ((x)[r]>(z)){2,3} WHERE z.p > x.p //this is not allowed
It is possible, however, to position the WHERE
clause outside of the node pattern:
MATCH ((x)[r]>(z) WHERE z.p > x.p){2,3}
Matching
The mechanics of matching a quantified path pattern against paths is best explained with an example. For the example, the following simple graph will be used:
First, consider the following simple path pattern:
(x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2)
This matches three different paths in the graph above.
The resulting bindings for x
and z
for each match are the following (the captions n1
etc indicate the identity of the nodes in the diagram above):
x  z 







If the quantifier {2}
is affixed to the simple path pattern, the result is the following quantified path pattern:
((x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2)){2}
This is equivalent to chaining together two iterations of the pattern, where the rightmost node of the first iteration is merged with the leftmost node of the second one. (See node pattern pairs for more details.)
(x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2) (x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2)
To avoid introducing equijoins between the two instances of x
, and between the two instances of z
, the variables are replaced with a set of fresh variables inside each iteration:
(x1:A)[:R]>(z1:B WHERE z1.h > 2) (x2:A)[:R]>(z2:B WHERE z2.h > 2)
Then the node variables in adjoining node patterns are merged:
(x1:A)[:R]>({z1,x2}:A&B WHERE z1.h > 2)[:R]>(z2:B WHERE z2.h > 2)
The fact that variables x2
and z1
are bound to matches of the same node pattern is represented with the notation {z1,x2}
.
Outside of the pattern, the variables x
and z
will be group variables that contain lists of nodes.
Consider the quantified path pattern in the following query:
MATCH ((x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2)){2}
RETURN [n in x  n.h] AS x_h, [n in z  n.h] AS z_h
This yields the following results:
x_h  z_h 





Now the quantifier is changed to match lengths from one to five:
MATCH ((x:A)[:R]>(z:B WHERE z.h > 2)){1,5}
RETURN [n in x  n.h] AS x_h, [n in z  n.h] AS z_h
Compared to the fixed length quantifier {2}
, this also matches paths of length one and three, but no matches exist for length greater than three:
x_h  z_h 













Quantified relationships
Rules
A quantified relationship is an abbreviated form of a quantified path pattern, with only a single relationship pattern specified.
For example, the following quantified relationship:
()[r]>{m,n}()
is equivalent to the following quantified path pattern, with empty node patterns on either side:
() (()[r]>()){m,n} ()
However, unlike a quantified path pattern, a quantified relationship must always have a node pattern on each side.
Examples
Matches paths starting with nodes labeled A
and ending with nodes labeled B
, that traverse between two and three relationships of type R
:
(:A)[r:R]>{2,3}(:B)
This is equivalent to the following:
(:A) (()[r:R]>()){2,3} (:B)
Matches paths with one or more relationships of any direction and any type:
()+()
Quantifiers
The quantifiers here only refer to those used in quantified path patterns and quantified relationships.
Syntax
quantifier ::=
"*"  "+"  fixedQuantifier  generalQuantifier
fixedQuantifier ::= "{" unsignedInteger "}"
generalQuantifier ::= "{" lowerBound "," upperBound "}"
lowerBound ::= unsignedInteger
upperBound ::= unsignedInteger
unsignedInteger ::= [09]+
Rules
The absence of an upper bound in the general quantifier syntax means there is no upper bound. The following table shows variants of the quantifier syntax and their canonical form:
Variant  Canonical form  Description 



Between m and n iterations. 


1 or more iterations. 


0 or more iterations. 


Exactly n iterations. 


m or more iterations. 


Between 0 and n iterations. 


0 or more iterations. 
Note that a quantified path pattern with the quantifier {1}
is not equivalent to a fixedlength path pattern.
Although the resulting quantified path pattern will match on the same paths the fixedlength path contained in it would without the quantifier, the presence of the quantifier means that all variables within the path pattern will be exposed as group variables.
Graph patterns
A graph pattern is a comma separated list of one or more path patterns.
It is the top level construct provided to MATCH
.
Rules
The rules for path patterns apply to each constituent path pattern of a graph pattern.
Variable references
Any node or relationship variable declared in a graph pattern can be referenced in a WHERE
clause elsewhere in the graph pattern  unless it is inside a quantified path pattern not containing the variable.
For example, this is allowed:
(n)>(m:A)>(:B), (m)[r WHERE r.p <> n.p]>(:C)
But this is not allowed:
(n)>(m:A)>(:B), (m) (()[r WHERE r.p <> n.p]>())+ (:C) //this is not allowed
A variable can be referred to inside a quantified path pattern if it has already been bound in a previous MATCH
clause.
If a variable is declared inside a quantified path pattern, then it can be treated as a singleton only from within the quantified path pattern it was declared in.
Outside of that quantified path pattern, it must be treated as a group variable.
For example, this would be allowed:
((n)[r]>(m WHERE r.p = m.q))+
As would this:
(n)[r]>+(m WHERE all(rel in r WHERE rel.q > m.q))
But this would not be allowed:
(n)[r]>+(m WHERE r.p = m.q) //this is not allowed
Relationship uniqueness
A relationship can only be traversed once in a given match for a graph pattern. The same restriction doesn’t hold for nodes, which may be retraversed any number of times in a match.
Equijoin
If a node variable is declared more than once in a path pattern, it is expressing an equijoin.
This is an operation that requires that each node pattern with the same node variable be bound to the same node.
For example, the following pattern refers to the same node twice with the variable a
, forming a cycle:
(a)>(b)>(c)>(a)
The following pattern refers to the same node with variable b
in different path patterns of the same graph pattern, forming a "T" shaped pattern:
(a)>(b)>(c), (b)>(e)
Equijoins can only be made using variables outside of quantified path patterns. The following would not be a valid equijoin:
(a)>(b)>(c), ((b)>(e))+ (:X) //this is not allowed
If no equijoin exists between path patterns in a graph pattern, then a Cartesian join is formed from the sets of matches for each path pattern. An equijoin can be expressed between relationship patterns by declaring a relationship variable multiple times. However, as relationships can only be traversed once in a given match, no solutions would be returned.
Examples
The WHERE
clause can refer to variables inside and outside of quantified path patterns:
(a)>(b)>(c), (b) ((d)>(e))+ WHERE any(n in d WHERE n.p = a.p)
An equijoin can be formed to match "H" shaped graphs:
(:A)>(x)(:B), (x)[:R]>+(y), (:C)>(y)>(:D)
With no variables in common, this graph pattern will result in a Cartesian join between the sets of matches for the two path patterns:
(a)>(b)>(c), ((d)>(e))+
Multiple equijoins can be formed between path patterns:
(:X)>(a:A)[!:R]>+(b:B)>(:Y), (a)[:R]>+(b)
Variables declared in a previous MATCH
can be referenced inside of a quantified path pattern:
MATCH (n {p = 'ABC'})
MATCH (n)>(m:A)>(:B), (m) (()[r WHERE r.p <> n.p]>())+ (:C)
The repetition of a relationship variable in the following yields no solutions due to Cypher enforcing relationship uniqueness within a match for a graph pattern:
MATCH ()[r]>()>(), ()[r]()
Node pattern pairs
It is not valid syntax to write a pair of node patterns next to each other. For example, all of the following would raise a syntax error:
(a:A)(b:B)
(a:A)(b:B)<[r:R](c:C)
(a:A)<(b:B)(c:C)>(d:C)
However, the placing of pairs of node patterns next to each other is valid where it results indirectly from the expansion of quantified path patterns.
Iterations of quantified path patterns
When a quantified path pattern is expanded, the fixed path pattern contained in its parentheses is repeated and chained. This results in pairs of node patterns sitting next to each other. Take the following quantified path pattern as an example:
((x:X)<(y:Y)){3}
This is expanded by repeating the fixed path pattern (x:X)←(y:Y)
three times, with indices on the variables to show that no equijoin is implied (see equijoins for more information):
(x1:X)<(y1:Y)(x2:X)<(y2:Y)(x3:X)<(y3:Y)
The result is that two pairs of node patterns end up adjoining each other, (y1:Y)(x2:X)
and (y2:Y)(x3:X)
.
During the matching process, each pair of node patterns will match the same nodes, and those nodes will satisfy the conjunction of the predicates in the node patterns.
For example, in the first pair both y1
and x2
will bind to the same node, and that node must have labels X
and Y
.
This expansion and binding is depicted in the following diagram:
Simple path patterns and quantified path patterns
Pairs of node patterns are also generated when a simple path pattern is placed next to a quantified path. For example, consider the following path pattern:
(:A)[:R]>(:B) ((:X)<(:Y)){1,2}
After expanding the iterations of the quantified path pattern, the righthand node pattern (:B)
adjoins the lefthand node pattern (:X)
.
The result will match the same paths as the union of matches of the following two path patterns:
(:A)[:R]>(:B&X)<(:Y)
(:A)[:R]>(:B&X)<(:Y&X)<(:Y)
If the simple path pattern is on the right of the quantified path pattern, its leftmost node (:A)
adjoins the rightmost node (:Y)
of the last iteration of the quantified path pattern.
For example, the following:
((:X)<(:Y)){1,2} (:A)[:R]>(:B)
will match the same paths as the union of the following two path patterns:
(:X)<(:Y&A)[:R]>(:B)
(:X)<(:Y&X)<(:Y&A)[:R]>(:B)
Pairs of quantified path patterns
When two quantified path patterns adjoin, the rightmost node of the last iteration of the first pattern is merged with the leftmost node of the first iteration of the second pattern. For example, the following adjoining patterns:
((:A)[:R]>(:B)){2} ((:X)<(:Y)){1,2}
will match the same set of paths as the union of the paths matched by these two path patterns:
(:A)[:R]>(:B&A)[:R]>(:B&X)<(:Y)
(:A)[:R]>(:B&A)[:R]>(:B&X)<(:Y&X)<(:Y)
Zero iterations
If the quantifier allows for zero iterations of a pattern, for example {0,3}
, then the 0th iteration of that pattern results in the node patterns on either side pairing up.
For example, the following path pattern:
(:X) ((a:A)[:R]>(b:B)){0,1} (:Y)
will match the same set of paths as the union of the paths matched by the following two path patterns:
(:X&Y)
(:X&A)[:R]>(:B&Y)
Variablelength relationships
Prior to the introduction of the syntax for quantified path patterns and quantified relationships in Neo4j 5.9, the only way in Cypher to match paths of variable length was with a variablelength relationship. This syntax is still available. It is equivalent to the syntax for quantified relationships, with the following differences:

Position and syntax of quantifier.

Semantics of the asterisk symbol.

Type expressions are limited to the disjunction operator.

The WHERE clause is not allowed.
Syntax
varLengthRelationship ::=
"<[" varLengthFiller "]"
 "[" varLengthFiller "]>"
 "[" varLengthFiller "]"
varLengthFiller ::= [ relationshipVariable ] [ varLengthTypeExpression ]
[ varLengthQuantifier ] [ propertyKeyValueExpression ]
varLengthTypeExpression ::= ":" varLengthTypeTerm
varLengthTypeTerm ::=
typeIdentifier
 varLengthTypeTerm "" varLengthTypeTerm
varLengthQuantifier ::= varLengthVariable  varLengthFixed
varLengthVariable ::= "*" [ [ lowerBound ] ".." [ upperBound ] ]
varLengthFixed ::= "*" fixedBound
fixedBound ::= unsignedInteger
lowerBound ::= unsignedInteger
upperBound ::= unsignedInteger
unsignedInteger ::= [09]+
For rules on valid relationship variable names, see Cypher naming rules.
Rules
The following table shows variants of the variablelength quantifier syntax and their equivalent canonical quantifier form (the form used by quantified path patterns):
Variant  Description 


1 or more iterations. 

Exactly n iterations. 

Between m and n iterations. 

m or more iterations. 

Between 1 and n iterations. 
Note that *
used here on its own is not the same as the Kleene star (an operator that represents zero or more repetitions), as the Kleene star has a lower bound of zero.
The above table can be used to translate the quantifier used in variablelength relationships.
The rules given for quantified path patterns would apply to the translation.
This table shows some examples:
Variablelength relationship  Equivalent quantified path pattern 







Equijoins
The variable of a variablelength relationship can be used in subsequent patterns to refer to the list of relationships the variable is bound to. This is the same as the equijoin for variables bound to single nodes or relationships.
This section uses the following graph:
To recreate the graph, run the following query against an empty Neo4j database:
CREATE ({name: 'Filipa'})[:KNOWS]>({name:'Anders'})[:KNOWS]>
({name:'Dilshad'})
In the following query, the node variables will be bound to the same nodes:
MATCH (a {name: 'Dilshad'})<[r*1..2](b)
MATCH (c)<[r*1..2](d)
RETURN a = c, b = d, size(r)
a = c  b = d  size(r) 







Rows: 2 
The list of relationships keeps its order.
This means that in the following query, where the direction of the variablelength relationship in the second MATCH
is switched, the equijoin will only match once, when there is a single relationship:
MATCH (a {name: 'Dilshad'})<[r*1..2](b)
MATCH (c)[r*1..2]>(d)
RETURN a = c, b = d, size(r)
a = c  b = d  size(r) 




Rows: 1 
The variable r
can be reversed in order like any list, and made to match the switch in relationship pattern direction:
MATCH (a {name: 'Dilshad'})<[r*1..2](b)
WITH a, b, reverse(r) AS s
MATCH (c)[s*1..2]>(d)
RETURN a = d, b = c, size(s)
a = d  b = c  size() 







Rows: 2 
Changing the bounds on subsequent MATCH
statements will mean that only the overlapping lengths of the quantifier bounds will produce results:
MATCH (a {name: 'Dilshad'})<[r*1..2](b)
MATCH (c)<[r*2..3](d)
RETURN a = c, b = d, size(r)
a = c  b = d  size(r) 




Rows: 1 
Because Cypher only allows paths to traverse a relationship once (see relationship uniqueness), repeating a variablelength relationship in the same graph pattern will yield no results.
For example, this MATCH
clause will never pass on any intermediate results to subsequent clauses:
MATCH (x)[r*1..2]>(y)[r*1..2]>(z)
Attempting to repeat a variablelength relationship in a single relationship pattern will raise an error.
For example, the following pattern raises an error because the variable r
appears in both a variablelength relationship and a fixedlength relationship:
MATCH (x)[r*1..2]>(y)[r]>(z)
Examples
The following pattern matches paths starting with nodes labeled A
and ending with nodes labeled B
, that traverse between two and three relationships of type R
:
(:A)[r:R*2..3]>(:B)
The following traverses relationships of type R
or S
or T
exactly five times:
()[r:RST*5]>()
The following traverses any relationship between zero and five times, with the path beginning at nodes labeled A
and ending at nodes labeled B
.
Note that this will also return all nodes that have both labels A
and B
for the case where zero relationships are traversed:
(:A)[*0..5]>(:B)
If the lower bound is removed, it will default to one, and will no longer return paths of length zero, i.e. single nodes:
(:A)[*..5]>(:B)
The following pattern traverses one or more relationships of any direction that have property p
= $param
:
()[* {p: $param}]()
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