Online Course Cypher Query Tuning with Neo4j 4.0 How Queries Work in Neo4j Preparing for Query Tuning Reducing cardinality Optimizing Property Access Monitoring Queries Summary: Cypher Query Tuning with Neo4j 4.0 Want to Speak? Get $ back. Preparing for Query… Read more →

Preparing for Query Tuning

About this module

In this module you will learn about the steps you should take before you begin your query tuning work.

At the end of this module, you should be able to:

  • Ensure you have the appropriate system hardware and settings that can affect performance.
  • Prepare Neo4j configuration settings for query tuning.
  • Use a representative data set for your queries.
  • Pre-test all queries to ensure expected rows based upon DB Stats.
  • Ensure the Page Cache is warmed up.

System performance factors

The hardware and system settings required for executing Cypher queries in a Neo4j instance are the typical ones required by most applications:

  • Disk – Ensure that you either use SSD or you have enough IOPs on the system.
    • On linux, configure disk scheduler to noop or deadline, mount the database volume with noatime.
  • RAM – Ideally you want to fit your entire graph in memory.
  • CPU cores – The more cores, the more concurrent operations can occur.
  • Number of open files – It is recommended that you set it to 40000 if many indexes and users connect.
  • Neo4j version – You should use the latest GA release of Neo4j to take advantage of the performance improvements that come with Neo4j.

In addition, you should be prepared to monitor system bottlenecks:

  • top or htop for CPU and memory usage
  • iotop for disk usage

You can read more details about system configuration here

Neo4j configuration settings

To prepare for query tuning, you should examine and modify these settings in neo4j.conf:

Property Description Default value

dbms.memory.pagecache.size

The amount of memory to use for mapping the store files, in bytes (or kilobytes with the ‘k’ suffix, megabytes with ‘m’ and gigabytes with ‘g’). If possible, set to the size of the graph (:sysinfo).

512m, but if not set, Neo4j uses 50% of RAM.

dbms.memory.heap.initial_size

In most cases 8G – 16G is sufficient, but this should never exceed the amount of physical RAM. It should match what you configure for dbms.memory.heap.max_size.

512m

dbms.memory.heap.max_size

In most cases 8G – 16G is sufficient, but this should never exceed the amount of physical RAM

1G

Changes to these properties require a restart of the Neo4j instance.

Querying memory usage

For a started Neo4j instance, you can also query the DBMS to see how much memory is being used:

CALL dbms.listPools()

listPools

Querying configuration settings

You can also query the graph for what these settings are with this Cypher:

CALL dbms.listConfig() YIELD name, value
WHERE name STARTS WITH 'dbms.memory'
RETURN name, value

listConfig

In the next lesson, when you begin query tuning, you will be setting these properties to use more heap.

Using a representative dataset

Note
It is extremely important that the dataset you are performing the queries against has the same characteristics your real data will have.

How the execution plan is created depends upon the DB Stats as well as the indexes defined for the database.

You should always:

  • Ensure the data is loaded into the database you will be testing against and it represents a realistic number of nodes and relationships for your real dataset.
  • Understand the data model with CALL apoc.meta.graph()
  • Understand the DB Stats with CALL apoc.meta.stats()
  • Understand the indexes in the graph with :schema

Pre-test all queries

Before you begin query tuning, make sure that all queries are properly formed:

  • Is the implied syntax correct?
  • Are indexes being used as expected?
  • Is there minimal to no use of literals in queries?

As you learned in the previous lesson, you should aim to always use parameters in your queries, rather than literals. This will ensure that the Query Cache is used to your advantage. If a literal is used, it should be one that is always used in the queries.

Let’s look at some other examples where the queries could be written incorrectly.

Check all implied syntax

You can use EXPLAIN to help you when examining queries you will be tuning.

Suppose we had this query:

EXPLAIN
MATCH (p:Person)
WHERE p.fullName = $actorName
RETURN p

propertyWrong

The problem we see with this query is that we know that there is an index on the Person nodes using the name property. With this query we would expect the index to be used. As we see in the image, no index is used to perform the query. p.fullName should have been specified as .name.

Furthermore, we can see that fullName is not a valid property key.

Verify property keys

You can execute this statement to get a list of all valid property names in the graph or you can simply view the keys in the left panel of Neo4j Browser.

CALL db.propertyKeys() YIELD propertyKey
propertyKey ORDER BY propertyKey

propertyKeys

Check correct variable use

From our knowledge of DB Stats, we know that there are 56,914 (:Person)-(:_ACTED_IN_)→() relationships in the graph.

Suppose we will be tuning this query:

EXPLAIN
MATCH (p:Person)-[ACTED_IN]->(m)
RETURN p, m

missingRel

When we look at the expected number of rows, we see 63,790. This is not correct because the query had an error in it.

Corrected query

It should have been written as follows:

EXPLAIN
MATCH (p:Person)-[:ACTED_IN]->(m)
RETURN p, m

When we look at the expected rows now, we now what we expect from the DB Stats:

missingRelCorrected

Warm up the Execution Plan and Page Caches

After you have confirmed that the queries are properly formed and use the expected resources to perform the queries, you are ready to begin tuning.

You want the query times to not include time for compilation. That is, you want to measure only the query execution time and the time it takes to return the results. To warm up the Execution Plan Cache, make sure you execute all queries you will be tuning. This will ensure that they are compiled and in the Execution Plan Cache.

There are different ways that you can warm up the Page Cache. Depending on the size of your graph and the size of RAM on your system, you may not be able to keep the entire graph in Page Cache.

Here are some ways that you can warm up the Page Cache:

MATCH (n) RETURN max(id(n))
MATCH ()-[rel]->() RETURN max(id(rel))
// or
CALL apoc.warmup.run() //nodes and relationships
CALL apoc.warmup.run(true) // include properties
CALL apoc.warmup.run(true,true) // include large strings and arrays
CALL apoc.warmup.run(true,true,true) // include indexes
Note
When the Neo4j instance is restarted, it fills the Page Cache with the data it had before it was previously running.

Monitor hit percentages in the Page Cache

Part of your query tuning work should be to monitor the hit percentages in the Page Cache:

pageCacheHits

Exercise 2: Prepare for Query Tuning

In the query edit pane of Neo4j Browser, execute the browser command:

:play 4.0-query-tuning-exercises

and follow the instructions for Exercise 2.

Note
This exercise has 6 steps. Estimated time to complete: 15 minutes.

Check your understanding

Question 1

Which of the following will impact your query tuning work?

Select the correct answers.

  • RAM
  • Version of Neo4j
  • Disk hardware and software
  • Number of Cores

Question 2

Which Cypher statement will provide you with count information that you can use to explain the behaviour of the queries you will be tuning?

Select the correct answer.

  • CALL db.countInfo()
  • CALL db.count-store()
  • CALL apoc.count-store()
  • CALL apoc.meta.stats()

Question 3

Why do you warm up the Page Cache?

Select the correct answer.

  • You want as much data from the graph in memory for your queries.
  • You want to make sure the DB Stats are updated.
  • You want the execution plans for queries you will be tuning to be in memory.
  • You want lock all data so that it cannot be modified during query tuning.

Summary

You should now be able to:

  • Ensure you have the appropriate system hardware and settings that can affect performance.
  • Prepare Neo4j configuration settings for query tuning.
  • Use a representative data set for your queries.
  • Pre-test all queries to ensure expected rows based upon DB Stats.
  • Ensure the Page Cache is warmed up.

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