Executing the different algorithm modes

Follow along with a notebook in Colab Google Colab

This example explains execution modes for GDS algorithms and how to use each one of them.

Setup

For more information on how to get started using Python, refer to the Connecting with Python tutorial.

pip install graphdatascience
# Import the client
from graphdatascience import GraphDataScience

# Replace with the actual URI, username, and password
AURA_CONNECTION_URI = "neo4j+s://xxxxxxxx.databases.neo4j.io"
AURA_USERNAME = "neo4j"
AURA_PASSWORD = ""

# Configure the client with AuraDS-recommended settings
gds = GraphDataScience(
    AURA_CONNECTION_URI,
    auth=(AURA_USERNAME, AURA_PASSWORD),
    aura_ds=True
)

In the following code examples we use the print function to print Pandas DataFrame and Series objects. You can try different ways to print a Pandas object, for instance via the to_string and to_json methods; if you use a JSON representation, in some cases you may need to include a default handler to handle Neo4j DateTime objects. Check the Python connection section for some examples.

For more information on how to get started using the Cypher Shell, refer to the Neo4j Cypher Shell tutorial.

Run the following commands from the directory where the Cypher shell is installed.
export AURA_CONNECTION_URI="neo4j+s://xxxxxxxx.databases.neo4j.io"
export AURA_USERNAME="neo4j"
export AURA_PASSWORD=""

./cypher-shell -a $AURA_CONNECTION_URI -u $AURA_USERNAME -p $AURA_PASSWORD

For more information on how to get started using Python, refer to the Connecting with Python tutorial.

pip install neo4j
# Import the driver
from neo4j import GraphDatabase

# Replace with the actual URI, username, and password
AURA_CONNECTION_URI = "neo4j+s://xxxxxxxx.databases.neo4j.io"
AURA_USERNAME = "neo4j"
AURA_PASSWORD = ""

# Instantiate the driver
driver = GraphDatabase.driver(
    AURA_CONNECTION_URI,
    auth=(AURA_USERNAME, AURA_PASSWORD)
)
# Import to prettify results
import json

# Import for the JSON helper function
from neo4j.time import DateTime

# Helper function for serializing Neo4j DateTime in JSON dumps
def default(o):
    if isinstance(o, (DateTime)):
        return o.isoformat()

Create an example graph

We start by creating some basic graph data first.

gds.run_cypher("""
    CREATE
      (home:Page {name:'Home'}),
      (about:Page {name:'About'}),
      (product:Page {name:'Product'}),
      (links:Page {name:'Links'}),
      (a:Page {name:'Site A'}),
      (b:Page {name:'Site B'}),
      (c:Page {name:'Site C'}),
      (d:Page {name:'Site D'}),

      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(about),
      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(links),
      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.6}]->(product),
      (about)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (product)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (a)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (b)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (c)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (d)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.8}]->(home),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(a),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(b),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(c),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(d)
""")
CREATE
  (home:Page {name:'Home'}),
  (about:Page {name:'About'}),
  (product:Page {name:'Product'}),
  (links:Page {name:'Links'}),
  (a:Page {name:'Site A'}),
  (b:Page {name:'Site B'}),
  (c:Page {name:'Site C'}),
  (d:Page {name:'Site D'}),

  (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(about),
  (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(links),
  (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.6}]->(product),
  (about)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (product)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (a)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (b)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (c)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (d)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
  (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.8}]->(home),
  (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(a),
  (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(b),
  (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(c),
  (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(d)
# Cypher query
create_example_graph_on_disk_query = """
    CREATE
      (home:Page {name:'Home'}),
      (about:Page {name:'About'}),
      (product:Page {name:'Product'}),
      (links:Page {name:'Links'}),
      (a:Page {name:'Site A'}),
      (b:Page {name:'Site B'}),
      (c:Page {name:'Site C'}),
      (d:Page {name:'Site D'}),

      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(about),
      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.2}]->(links),
      (home)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.6}]->(product),
      (about)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (product)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (a)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (b)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (c)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (d)-[:LINKS {weight: 1.0}]->(home),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.8}]->(home),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(a),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(b),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(c),
      (links)-[:LINKS {weight: 0.05}]->(d)
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    result = session.run(create_example_graph_on_disk_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

We then project an in-memory graph from the data just created.

g, result = gds.graph.project(
    "example-graph",
    "Page",
    "LINKS",
    relationshipProperties="weight"
)

print(result)
CALL gds.graph.project(
  'example-graph',
  'Page',
  'LINKS',
  {
    relationshipProperties: 'weight'
  }
)
# Cypher query
create_example_graph_in_memory_query = """
    CALL gds.graph.project(
      'example-graph',
      'Page',
      'LINKS',
      {
        relationshipProperties: 'weight'
      }
    )
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    result = session.run(create_example_graph_in_memory_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

Execution Modes

Every production-tier algorithm can be run in four different modes:

  • stats

  • stream

  • mutate

  • write

An additional estimate mode is explained in detail in the Estimating memory usage and resizing an instance section.

In the following we’ll use the PageRank algorithm to show the usage of every execution mode.

Stats

The stats mode can be useful for evaluating an algorithm performance without mutating the in-memory graph. When running an algorithm in this mode, a single row containing a summary of the algorithm statistics (for example, counts or percentile distributions) is returned.

result = gds.pageRank.stats(
    g,
    maxIterations=20,
    dampingFactor=0.85
)

print(result)
CALL gds.pageRank.stats(
  'example-graph',
  {maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
)
YIELD ranIterations,
  didConverge,
  preProcessingMillis,
  computeMillis,
  postProcessingMillis,
  centralityDistribution,
  configuration
RETURN *
# Cypher query
page_rank_stats_example_graph_query = """
    CALL gds.pageRank.stats(
      'example-graph',
      {maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
    )
    YIELD ranIterations,
      didConverge,
      preProcessingMillis,
      computeMillis,
      postProcessingMillis,
      centralityDistribution,
      configuration
    RETURN *
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    result = session.run(page_rank_stats_example_graph_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

The result contains the estimated time to run the algorithm (computeMillis) along with other details like the centrality distribution and the configuration parameters.

Stream

The stream mode returns the results of an algorithm as Cypher result rows. This is similar to how standard Cypher reading queries operate.

With the PageRank example, this mode returns a node ID and the computed PageRank score for each node. The gds.util.asNode procedure can then be used to find a node from its node ID.

results = gds.pageRank.stream(
    g,
    maxIterations=20,
    dampingFactor=0.85
)

print(results)
CALL gds.pageRank.stream(
  'example-graph',
  {maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
)
YIELD nodeId, score
RETURN *
# Cypher query to just get internal node ID and score
page_rank_stream_example_graph_query = """
    CALL gds.pageRank.stream(
      'example-graph',
      {maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
    )
    YIELD nodeId, score
    RETURN *
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    results = session.run(page_rank_stream_example_graph_query).data()

    # Prettify the results
    print(json.dumps(results, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

Since an algorithm can run for a long time and the connection may suddenly drop, we suggest to use the mutate and write modes instead to make sure that the computation completes and the results are saved.

Mutate

The mutate mode operates on the in-memory graph and updates it with a new property specified with the mutateProperty configuration parameter. The new property must not already exist in the in-memory graph.

This mode is useful when chaining the execution of several algorithms each of which relying on the results on the previous.

In the case of PageRank, the result of this mode is a score for each node. In this example we add the calculated score to each node of the in-memory graph as the value of a new property called pageRankScore.

result = gds.pageRank.mutate(
    g,
    mutateProperty="pageRankScore",
    maxIterations=20,
    dampingFactor=0.85
)

print(result)
CALL gds.pageRank.mutate(
  'example-graph',
  {mutateProperty: 'pageRankScore', maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
)
YIELD nodePropertiesWritten, ranIterations
RETURN *
# Cypher query to just get mutate the graph
page_rank_mutate_example_graph_query = """
    CALL gds.pageRank.mutate(
      'example-graph',
      {mutateProperty: 'pageRankScore', maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
    )
    YIELD nodePropertiesWritten, ranIterations
    RETURN *
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    result = session.run(page_rank_mutate_example_graph_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

Write

The write mode writes the results of the algorithm computation back to the Neo4j database. The written data can be node properties (such as PageRank scores), new relationships (such as Node Similarity similarities), or relationship properties (only for newly created relationships).

Similarly to the previous example, here we add the calculated score of the PageRank algorithm to each node of the Neo4j database as the value of a new property called pageRankScore.

To use the result of a write mode computation with another algorithm, a new in-memory graph must be created from the Neo4j database.
result = gds.pageRank.write(
    g,
    writeProperty="pageRankScore",
    maxIterations=20,
    dampingFactor=0.85
)

print(result)
CALL gds.pageRank.write(
  'example-graph',
  {writeProperty: 'pageRankScore', maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
)
YIELD nodePropertiesWritten, ranIterations
RETURN *
# Cypher query to write the graph
page_rank_write_example_graph_query = """
    CALL gds.pageRank.write(
      'example-graph',
      {writeProperty: 'pageRankScore', maxIterations: 20, dampingFactor: 0.85}
    )
    YIELD nodePropertiesWritten, ranIterations
    RETURN *
"""

# Create the driver session
with driver.session() as session:
    # Run query
    result = session.run(page_rank_write_example_graph_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True))

Cleanup

After going through the example, both the in-memory graphs and the data in the Neo4j database can be deleted.

result = gds.graph.drop(g)
print(result)

gds.run_cypher("""
    MATCH (n)
    DETACH DELETE n
""")
CALL gds.graph.drop('example-graph');

MATCH (n)
DETACH DELETE n;
delete_example_in_memory_graph_query = """
    CALL gds.graph.drop('example-graph')
"""

delete_example_graph = """
    MATCH (n)
    DETACH DELETE n
"""

with driver.session() as session:
    # Delete in-memory graph
    result = session.run(delete_example_in_memory_graph_query).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True, default=default))

    # Delete data from Neo4j
    result = session.run(delete_example_graph).data()

    # Prettify the result
    print(json.dumps(result, indent=2, sort_keys=True, default=default))

References

Cypher